Gender differences in takeoff techniques of non-elite Russian long jumpers


  • Oleg Nemtsev Adyghe State University, Russian Federation
  • Natalia Nemtseva Adyghe State University, Russian Federation
  • Aydamir Bguashev Adyghe State University, Russian Federation
  • Salman Elipkhanov Adyghe State University, Russian Federation
  • Irina Grekalova Krasnodar State University of Culture and Art, Russian Federation



Take-off velocity, Take-off angle, Ground contact time, Leg angle, Long jump distance


The objective of this study was to determine gender differences in takeoff techniques of Russian male and female long jumpers. The competitive performances of twenty-six male and twenty-one female athletes were videotaped with a high-speed digital camcorder for further two-dimensional analysis. It has been found that male jumpers had significantly larger takeoff velocity including its horizontal (7.96 ± 0.44 and 7.06 ± 0.32 m · s-1) and vertical (3.35 ± 0.44 and 2.75 ± 0.37 m · s-1) components, takeoff angle (22.8 ± 2.5 and 21.3 ± 2.4°), the centre of gravity (CG) height at touchdown (0.92 ± 0.04 and 0.88 ± 0.04 m) and takeoff (1.18 ± 0.06 and 1.09 ± 0.04 m), and CG to heel distance at touchdown (0.44 ± 0.06 and 0.39 ± 0.05 m). Female long jumpers demonstrated significantly larger leg angles at touchdown (59.6 ± 2.8 and 57.7 ± 3.0° for female and male athletes respectively). The study has revealed that effective jump distance has a strong correlation with takeoff velocity and ground contact time, and a medium correlation with horizontal and vertical takeoff velocity, leg angle and CG height at takeoff for female jumpers and only one medium correlation with vertical takeoff velocity for male jumpers.


Download data is not yet available.


Akl, A-R. (2014). Biomechanical study to assess the variations between male and female in long jump. Sport Scientific And Practical Aspects, 11 (1), 33-36.

Alexander, R.McN. (1990). Optimum take-off techniques for high and long jumps. Philosophical Translations of the Royal Society, 329, 3-10.

Arampatzis, A., Brüggemann, G.-P., & Walsch, M. (1999). Long jump. In Biomechanical analysis of the jumping events. In G.-P. Brüggemann, D. Koszewski & H. Müller (Eds.), Biomechanical Research Project Athens 1997: Final Report (pp. 82-102). Oxford: Meyer & Meyer Sport.

Bridgett, L. A. & Linthorne, N. P. (2006). Changes in long jump take-off technique with increasing run-up speed. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(8), 889–897.

Campos J., Gámez J., Encarnación E., Gutiérrez-Dávila M., & Rojas J. (2008). Análisis de la técnica de la batida entre finalistas, hombres y mujeres, del Campeonato del Mundo de Atletismo en Pista Cubierta 2008. In World Congress on Science in Athletics (pp. 1-9). Publisher: Fundación CIDIDA.

Campos, J., Gamez, J., & Encarnacion, E. (2009). Kinematical analysis of the men's long jump at the 2008 IAAF's World Indoor Championships in Athletics. In A. Hökelmann, W. Kerstin, & P. O'Donoghue (Eds.), Current trends in Performance Analysis (pp. 185-188). Aachen: Shaker Verlag.

Campos, J., Gámez, J., Encarnación, A., Gutiérrez-Dávila, M., & Rojas J. (2013). Three Dimensional Kinematic Analysis of the Long Jump at the 2008 IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics. New Studies in Athletics, 28:3/4, 115-131.

Fukashiro, S., Wakayama, A., Kojima, T., Ito, N., Arai, T., Iiboshi, A., … Tan, H. P. (1994). Biomechanical analysis of the long jump (in Japanese). In Japan Association of Athletics Federations (Ed.), The techniques of the World top athletes (Research report of the 3rd World Championships, Tokyo) (pp. 135-151). Tokyo: Baseball Magazine Co.

Graham-Smith, P. & Lees, A. (2005). A three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the long jump take-off. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 891-903.

Hay, J. G., Thorson, E. M., & Kippenhan, B. C. (1999). Changes in muscle-tendon length during the takeoff of a running long jump. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17(2), 159-172.

Hussain, I., Khan, A., Mohammad, A., Bari, M.B., Ahmad A. (2011). A comparison of selected kinematical parameters between male and female intervarsity long jumpers. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 11 (2), 182-187.

Ivanov, V. S. (1990). Fundamentals of Mathematical Statistics (in Russia). Moscow: Physical Culture and Sports.

Koyama, H., Ae, M., Muraki, Y., Yoshihara, A., & Shibayama, K. (2009). Biomechanical analysis of the men's and women's long jump at the 11th IAAF World Championships in Athletics, OSAKA 2007: A brief report. Bulletin of Studies in Athletics of JAAF, 5, 107-118.

Lees, A., Derby, D., & Fowler, N. (1992). Sex differences in the jump touchdown and take-off characteristics of the long jump. Journal of Sports Science, 10(6), 558-589.

Lees, A., Derby, D., & Fowler, N. (1993). A biomechanical analysis of the last stride, touch-down, and takeoff characteristics of the women's long jump. Journal of Sports Sciences, 11, 303-314.

Lees, A., Graham-Smith, P., & Fowler, N. (1994). A biomechanical analysis of the last stride, touchdown and takeoff characteristics of the men's long jump. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 10, 61-78.

Linthorne, N. P. (2008). Biomechanics of the long jump. In Y. Hong & R. Bartlett (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of biomechanics and human movement science (pp. 340-353). London: Routledge.

Luhtanen, P., Komi, P. V. (1979). Mechanical power and segmental contribution to force impulses in long jump takeoff. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 41, 267-274.

Muraki, Y., Ae, M., Yokozawa, T., & Koyama, H. (2005). Mechanical properties of the takeoff leg as a support mechanism in the long jump. Sports Biomechanics, 4(1), 1-15.

Panoutsakopoulos, V. & Kollias, I. A. (2009). Biomechanical analysis of the last strides, the touchdown and the takeoff of top Greek male and female long jumpers, Hellenic Journal Physical Education & Sport Science, 29 (2), 200-218.

Panoutsakopoulos, V., Papaiakovou, G., & Kollias, I. A. (2009) A biomechanical analysis and assessment of the technique elements of the last strides, the touchdown and the takeoff of junior male and female long jumpers. Inquiries in Sport & Physical Education, 7 (3), 333-343.

Panoutsakopoulos, V., Papaiakovou, G. I., Katsikas, F. S., & Kollias, I. A. (2010). 3D Biomechanical Analysis of the Preparation of the Long Jump Take-Off. New Studies in Athletics, 1, 55-68.

Seo, J-S., Kim, H-M., Woo, S-Y., Kim, Y-W., Nam, K-J., Park, Y.-H., … Kim J-H. (2011). 2011 IAAF World Championships, Daegu KSSB Project Final Report. Men's Long Jump Finals. Women's Long Jump Finals. In Y-S. Bae (Ed.), Biomechanics Research Project in the IAAF World Championships Daegu 2011 (pp. 65-80). Daegu: Korean Society of Sports Biomechanics.

Suslakov, B. A. (1982). Statistical methods of processing of measurements (in Russian). In V.M. Zatsiorskiy (Ed.), Sports metrology (pp. 18-63). Moscow: Physical culture and sport.


Statistics RUA



How to Cite

Nemtsev, O., Nemtseva, N., Bguashev, A., Elipkhanov, S., & Grekalova, I. (2017). Gender differences in takeoff techniques of non-elite Russian long jumpers. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 11(4), 444–454.