Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Gender differences in takeoff techniques of non-elite Russian long jumpers

Oleg Nemtsev, Natalia Nemtseva, Aydamir Bguashev, Salman Elipkhanov, Irina Grekalova



The objective of this study was to determine gender differences in takeoff techniques of Russian male and female long jumpers. The competitive performances of twenty-six male and twenty-one female athletes were videotaped with a high-speed digital camcorder for further two-dimensional analysis. It has been found that male jumpers had significantly larger takeoff velocity including its horizontal (7.96 ± 0.44 and 7.06 ± 0.32 m · s-1) and vertical (3.35 ± 0.44 and 2.75 ± 0.37 m · s-1) components, takeoff angle (22.8 ± 2.5 and 21.3 ± 2.4°), the centre of gravity (CG) height at touchdown (0.92 ± 0.04 and 0.88 ± 0.04 m) and takeoff (1.18 ± 0.06 and 1.09 ± 0.04 m), and CG to heel distance at touchdown (0.44 ± 0.06 and 0.39 ± 0.05 m). Female long jumpers demonstrated significantly larger leg angles at touchdown (59.6 ± 2.8 and 57.7 ± 3.0° for female and male athletes respectively). The study has revealed that effective jump distance has a strong correlation with takeoff velocity and ground contact time, and a medium correlation with horizontal and vertical takeoff velocity, leg angle and CG height at takeoff for female jumpers and only one medium correlation with vertical takeoff velocity for male jumpers.


Take-off velocity; Take-off angle; Ground contact time; Leg angle; Long jump distance


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