The relationship between stadium factors on spectators’ satisfaction in Greek Soccer Super League

Panagiotis Ioannis Ioannou, Panteleimon Ioannis Bakirtzoglou

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between stadium factors (sportscape) on spectators’ satisfaction in Greek Soccer Super League. 255 spectators attending two Greek Super League football matches volunteered to participate in this study. Measurements included the use of two questionnaires: a demographic form and the sportscape instrument (Wakefield et al., 1996) to measure perceptions of the physical facility. Correlation and Regression analysis were used to identify the relationship and predictive variables of spectators’ satisfaction. Results indicated from the five variables of sportscape model, stadium security and cleanliness were the most predictive variables of spectators’ satisfaction. In conclusion, security during soccer game and cleanliness of the stadium have strong positive effects in spectators satisfaction and intention not to attend soccer games in Greece in the future.


Keywords

Soccer; Service; Sports industry; Place attachment; Soccer fans

References

Athanasopoulou, P., Skourtis, G., Zafeiropoulou, G., Siomkos, G., & Assiouras, I. (2012). Investigating the Importance of Sports Facilities & Staff for Football Fans. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 2(1).

Aycan, A., Kiremitci, O., Demiray, E., & Gencer, R. T. (2014). Determining team identification, service quality perceptions, and sport consumption intentions of professional soccer spectators: An investigation of gender differences. The Sport Journal, 5, 1-3.

Beyrami, M. H., & Najafzadeh, M. R. (2015). The relationship between perception of quality of services and spectators satisfaction in Tractorsazi Tabriz football team. International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences, 4(1), 18-20.

Bitner, M. J. (1992). Serviscapes: The impact of physical surroundings on customer and employees. Journal of Marketing, 56(2), 57-71. https://doi.org/10.2307/1252042

Cant, M., & Wiid, J. (2012). Service quality and spectator satisfaction on University sporting grounds. International Business & Economics Research Journal, 11(12), 1311-1323. https://doi.org/10.19030/iber.v11i12.7411

Chelladurai, P., & Chang, K. (2000). Targets and standards of quality in sport services. Sport Management Review, 3(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1441-3523(00)70077-5

Correia, A. & Esteves, S. (2007). An exploratory study of spectators' motivation in football. International Journal of Management and Marketing, 2(6), 572 – 590. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJSMM.2007.013968

de Carvalcho, M., Boen, F., & Scheerder, J. (2015). Sportscape as a constraint on soccer attendance: Is it predicted by place attachment and by team identification? Journal of Facility Planning, Design and Management, 3(2), 132-147.

Dhurup, M., Mofoka, M. A., & Surujlal, J. (2010). The relationship between stadium sportscapes dimensions, desire to stay and future attendance. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 16(3), 475-490. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajpherd.v16i3.60925

Douvis, J. (2007). A review of attendance and non-attendance studies. Journal of Biology of Exercise, 3, 5-20. https://doi.org/10.4127/jbe.2007.3.5-20

Giulianotti, R., & Robertson, R. (2004). The globalization of football: a study in the glocalization of the serious life. The British Journal of Sociology, 55(4), 545-568. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4446.2004.00037.x

Greenwell, T. C., Fink, J. S., & Pastore, D. L. (2006). Assessing the Influence of the Physical Sports Facility on Customer Satisfaction within the Context of the Service Experience. Sport Management Review, 5(2), 129-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1441-3523(02)70064-8

Gustafson, M. W. (2005). The relative importance of the sportscape in football game attendance at a NCAA division I-A University. Doctoral Dissertation. Texas Tech University, Texas, U.S.A.

Hightower, R., Brady, M. K., & Baker, T. L. (2002) Investigating the role of the physical environment in hedonic service consumption: an exploratory study of sporting events. Journal of Business Research, 55(9), 697-707. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(00)00211-3

Hill, B., & Green, B. (2000). Repeat attendance as a function of involvement, loyalty, and the sportscape across three football contexts. Sport Management Review, 3(2), 145-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1441-3523(00)70083-0

Hoyer, R. W., & Hoyer, B. B. Y. (2001). What is quality? Quality Progress, 34(7), 53-62.

Kim, Y. K., & Trail, G. T. (2011). A conceptual framework for understanding relationships between sport customers and sport organizations: a relationship quality approach. Journal of Sport Management, 25(1), 57-69. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.25.1.57

Lambrecht, K. W., Kaefer, F., & Ramenofsky, S. D. (2009). Sportscape factors influencing spectator satisfaction: A case study in professional golf. North America Society for Sport Management Conference, May 27-30, page 192.

Marinucci, D. (2002). Cleanliness: a key part of service. Tire Business, 19(20), 6-7.

McGoldrick, P J., & Pieros, C. P. (1998). Atmospherics, pleasure and arousal: The influence of response moderators. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(1-3), 173-197. https://doi.org/10.1362/026725798784959372

Mullin, B. J., Hardy, S., & Sutton, W. A. (2000). Sports Industry (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Oman, B., Perur, M., & Arneric, J. (2016). The impact of service quality and sport-team identification on the repurchase intention. Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues, 21(1), 19-46.

Pilus, A. H. M., Yusof, A. B., Bojei, J., Fauzee, M. S. O., Samah, B. A., & Aziz, R. A. A. (2010). The relationship of sportscape, motivation, loyalty satisfaction and intention to watch Malaysia Cup football. American Journal of Scientific Research, 7, 52-63.

Robinson, M. J., Trail, G. T., Dick, R. J., & Gillentine, A. J. (2005). Fans vs. spectators. An analysis of those who attend intercollegiate football games. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14, 43-53.

Rosenquist, L.E.D. (2005). A psychological analysis of the human-sanitation nexus. Joumal of Environmental Psychology, 25(3), 335-346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2005.07.003

Sarstedt, M., Schwaiger, M., Ringle, C., & Gudergan, S. (2009). Satisfaction with services: an impact-performance analysis for soccer-fan satisfaction judgments. Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, 1-8.

Svenson, G. (2003). A generic conceptual framework of interactive service quality. Managing Service Quality, 13(4), 267-275. https://doi.org/10.1108/09604520310484680

Van Leeuwen, L., Quick, S., & Daniel, K. (2002). The sport spectator satisfaction model: A conceptual framework for understanding the satisfaction of spectators. Sport Management Review, 5(2), 99-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1441-3523(02)70063-6

Wakefield, K. L., & Blodgett, J. G. (1994). The importance of servicescapes in leisure service settings. Journal of Services Marketing, 8(3), 66-76. https://doi.org/10.1108/08876049410065624

Wakefield, K. L., & Sloan, H. (1995). The effects of team loyalty and selected stadium factors on spectator attendance. Journal of Sport Management, 9(2), 153-172. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.9.2.153

Wakefield, K. L., Blodgett, J. G., & Sloan, H. (1996). Measurement and management of the sportscape. Journal of Sport Management, 10(1), 15-31. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.10.1.15

Wisniewski, M. (2001). Using SERVQUAL to assess customer satisfaction with public sector services. Managing Service Quality, 11(6), 380-388. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000006279




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2016.114.04