The ball recovery as an action related performance indicator in Football: An example using distinct operational definitions
Keywords:Performance indicators, Operational definitions, Football, Ball recovery
The aim of the study was to demonstrate the impact of different operational definitions (definition 1 – Amisco; definition 2 – Garganta, 1997; definition 3 – Garganta, 1997, adapted) over the frequency and location of ball recovery, and provide bases to select the most useful definition to an intended analysis. The sample is the first half of twelve matches from the Spanish soccer league. Matches were registered using AMISCO®. Data were examined using Cochran’s Q test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results showed that the frequency and location of ball recovery differ depending on the operational definition used. Definitions 1, 2 and 3 identified 909, 272 and 310 ball recoveries, respectively (p< 0.001 for all pairs of comparisons). The median distance from the goal to the location of ball recovery was, in meters, 40.0 (35.7) using definition 1, 32.2 (34.8) using definition 2 and 32.7 (34.3) when definition 3 was used (p<0.001 for comparisons between definition 1 and 2, and definition 1 and 3). The operational definitions impact in match analysis and consequently in the interpretation of the play. The criteria used should incorporate an instrumental selectivity that points to the purposes of the assessment. Concerning the frequency, definition 1 is the most glade, and definition 2 the most restrictive. Regarding the location, there were no significant differences between definition 2 and 3. Definition 2 allows to gain suitable and meaningful comparisons as previous studies has already based on it. Despite the differences, both definition 1 and 2 have a practical value. Ultimately, it is important to verify if the measurement instrument satisfies the logical intentions of the observational system.
Almeida, C., Ferreira, A. P., & Volossovitch, A. (2014). Effects of Match Location, Match Status and Quality of Opposition on Regaining Possession in UEFA Champions League. Journal of Human Kinetics, 41, 203-2014. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2014-0048
Armatas, V., Yiannakos, A., Zaggelidis, G., Skoufas, D., Papadopoulou, S., & Fragkos, N. (2009). Differences in offensive actions between top and last teams in greek first soccer division. A retrospective study 1998-2008. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 23(2), 1-5.
Barreira, D., Garganta, J., Guimarães, P., Machado, J., & Anguera, M. (2014). Ball recovery patterns as a performance indicator in elite soccer. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 228(I), 61-72. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754337113493083
Bradley, P., Lago-Peñas, C., Rey, E., & Sampaio, J. (2014). The influence of situational variables on ball possession in the English Premier League. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(20), 1867-1873. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.887850
Carling, C., Bloomfield, J., Nelsen, L., & Reilly, T. (2008). The Role of Motion Analysis in Elite Soccer: Contemporary Performance Measurement Techniques and Work Rate Data. Sports Medicine, 38(10), 839-862. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838100-00004
Carling, C., Wright, C., Nelson, L., & Bradley, P. (2014). Comment on 'Performance analysis in football: A critical review and implications for future research'. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(1), 2-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2013.807352
Castellano, J. (2000). Observación y análisis de la acción de juego en el Fútbol. Dissertação de Doutoramento, Universidad del País Vasco, Vitoria-Gasteiz.
Castellano, J., Blanco-Villaseñor, A., & Álvarez, D. (2011). Contextual Variables and time-motion analysis in soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(6), 415-421. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1271771
Castelo, J. (1994). Futebol. Modelo técnico-táctico do jogo. Identificação e caracterização das grandes tendências evolutivas das equipas de rendimento superior. Lisboa: Faculade de Motricidade Humana.
Di Salvo, V., Collins, A., McNeill, B., & Cardinale, M. (2006). Validation of Prozone®: A new video-based performance analysis system. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 6(1), 108-109. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2006.11868359
Di Salvo, V., Gregson, W., Atkinson, G., Tordoff, P., & Drust, B. (2009). Analysis of High Intensity Activity in Premier League Soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(3), 205-212. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1105950
Garganta, J. (1997). Modelação táctica do jogo de futebol estudo da organização da fase ofensiva em equipas de alto rendimento. Dissertação de Doutoramento, FADEUP, Porto.
Gréhaigne, J., Marchal, D., & Duprat, E. (2002). Regaining possession of the ball in the defensive area in soccer. In W. Spinks, T. Reilly & A. Murphy (Eds.), Science and Football IV (pp. 112-120). London: E & FN Spon.
Harrop, K., & Nevill, A. (2014). Performance indicators that predict success English professional League One soccer team. Intemational Joumal of Perfonnance Analysis in Sport, 14(3), 907-920. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2014.11868767
Hughes, M., & Bartlett, R. (2002). The use of performance indicators in performance analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 739-754. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404102320675602
Hughes, M., & Churchill, S. (2005). Attacking profiles of successful and unsuccessful teams in Copa America 2001. In Thomas Reilly, Jan Cabri & D. Araújo (Eds.), Science and Football V (pp. 222-228). London: Routledge.
Hughes, M., Evans, S., & Wells, J. (2001). Establishing normative profiles in performance analysis. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 1, 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2001.11868245
Hughes, M., & Franks, I. (2004). Sports analysis. In M. Hughes & I. M. Franks (Eds.), Notational Analysis of Sport. (Second Edition ed., pp. 107-117). London: Routledge.
James, N. (2006a). Notational analysis in soccer: past, present and future. International Journal of Performance Analysis of Sport, 6(2), 67-81. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2006.11868373
James, N. (2006b). The role of notational analysis in soccer coaching. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 1(2), 185-198. https://doi.org/10.1260/174795406777641294
James, N., Mellalieu, S. D., & Hollely, C. (2002). Analysis of strategies in soccer as a function of European and domestic competition. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 2, 85-103. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2002.11868263
Lago-Ballesteros, J. (2011). Influencia de los codicionantes estratégicos e las variables situacionales en el rendimiento de la fase ofensiva en futbol. Dissertação de Doutoramento, Universidade de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación y del Deporte, Pontevedra.
Lago-Ballesteros, J., Lago-Peñas, C., & Rey, E. (2012). The effect of playing tactics and situational variables on achieving score-box possessions in a professional soccer team. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(14), 1455-1461. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.712715
Lago-Peñas, C., & Dellal, A. (2010). Ball possession strategies in elite soccer according to the evolution of the match-score: the influence of situational variables. Jounal of Human Kinetics, 25, 93-100.
Lago-Peñas, C., & Lago-Ballesteros, J. (2011). Game location and team quality effects on performance profiles in professional soccer. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 10(3), 465-471.
Lago-Peñas, C., Rey, E., Lago-Ballesteros, J., Casáis, L., & Domínguez, E. (2011). The Influence of a Congested Calendar on Physical Performance in Elite Soccer. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(8), 211-217.
Lago, C. (2009). The influence of match location, quality of opposition, and match status on possession strategies in professional association football. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(13), 1463 - 1469. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410903131681
Lago, C., Casáis, L., Domínguez, E., & Sampaio, J. (2010). The effects of situational variables on distance covered at various speeds in elite soccer. European Journal of Sport Science, 10(2), 103 - 109. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390903273994
Lames, M., & Hansen, G. (2001). Designing observational systems to support top-level teams in game sports. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 1, 83-90. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2001.11868251
Mackenzie, R., & Cushion, C. (2013). Performance analysis in football: A critical review and implications for future research. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(6), 639-676. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.746720
Mombaerts, E. (2000). Fútbol. Del análisis del juego a la formación del jugador. Barcelona: INDE Publications.
Pollard, R., & Reep, C. (1997). Measuring the Effectiveness of Playing Strategies at Soccer. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series D (The Statistician), 46(4), 541-550. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9884.00108
Randers, M., Mujika, I., Hewitt, A., Santisteban, J., Bischoff, R., Solano, R., . . . Mohr, M. (2010). Application of four different football match analysis systems: A comparative study. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(2), 171 - 182. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410903428525
Redwood-Brown, A., Bussell, C., & Bharaj, H. (2012). The impact of different standards of opponents on observed player performance in the English Premier League. Journal of Human Sport & Exercise, 7(2), 341-355. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2012.72.01
Santos, P. (2012). A influência das variáveis situacionais no comportamento posicional de uma equipa profissional de futebol no instante de recuperação da posse da bola. Um estudo de caso. Dissertação de Doutoramento, Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación y del Deporte da Universidade de Vigo, Pontevedra.
Sarmento, H., Marcelino, R., Anguera, M., CampaniÇo, J., Matos, N., & Leitão, J. (2014). Match analysis in football: a systematic review. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(20), 1831-1843. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.898852
Silva, A., Bañuelos, F., Garganta, J., & Anguera, M. (2005). Patrones de juego en el fútbol de alto rendimiento. Análisis secuencial del proceso ofensivo en el campeonato del mundo Corea-Japón 2002. Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte, 1(2), 65-72.
Taylor, J., Mellalieu, S., & James, N. (2004). Behavioural comparisons of positional demands in professional soccer. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 4(1), 81-97. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2004.11868294
Taylor, J., Mellalieu, S., James, N., & Barter, P. (2010). Situation variable effects and tactical performance in professional association football. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 10, 255-269. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2010.11868520
Taylor, J., Mellalieu, S., James, N., & Shearer, D. (2008). The influence of match location, quality of opposition, and match status on technical performance in professional association football. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(9), 885-895. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410701836887
Tenga, A., Holme, I., Ronglan, L. T., & Bahr, R. (2010). Effect of playing tactics on achieving score-box possessions in a random series of team possessions from Norwegian professional soccer matches. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(3), 245 - 255. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410903502766
Tucker, W., Mellalieu, S., James, N., & Taylor, J. (2005). Game Location Effects in Professional Soccer: A Case Study. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 5, 23-35. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2005.11868325
Vogelbein, M., Nopp, S., & Hökelmann, A. (2014). Defensive transition in soccer – are prompt possession regains a measure of success? A quantitative analysis of German Fußball-Bundesliga 2010/2011. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(11), 1076-1083. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2013.879671
Williams, J. (2012). Operational definitions in performance analysis and the need for consensus. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 12(1), 52-63. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2012.11868582
Zubillaga, A., Gorospe, G., Mendo, A., & Vilasenor, A. (2007). Match analysis of 2005-06 Champions League Final with Amisco system. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 6(Suppl.10), 20.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.