Determination of the best recovery based on muscles synergy patterns and lactic acid
Keywords:Recovery, Synergies, Monark cycle ergometer, The Hals Algorithm, Lactic acid, Electromyogram signal
The determination of the best recovery after an anaerobic exercise is an important challenge for professional athletes. This study compared and analyzed three methods that are often used in professional teams included: 1.Cold water pool 2. Use the massager 3. Running with 40 to 50 percent of heart rate. Methods: In this work recovery the 15 minutes recovery is done immediately after doing exercise. The impact of a particular method of recovery is quantified via lactic acid in the blood after the recovery and the synergy patterns of muscle activity. In each method, Biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, lateral gastrocnemius muscles were analyzed. Results showed that there were synergy patterns in two running and ice methods, because maximum errors between basis vectors in all of the subjects were 0.13 and 0.18 respectively and Standard deviation of maximum MSE errors for all subjects is 6 (MSE index), whereas in massage recovery synergy has not been recognized because minimum error between basis vectors in all of the subjects was 4.29 and Standard deviation of maximum MSE error for all subjects is 4. Running has the best result in evacuating lactic acid. However, result in the ice method is similar to running.
 Mean square error
FundingThis study was supported by the Islamic Azad University, Mashhad branch
Bishop, A., Jones, E., Woods, A. (2008). Recovery from Training: A Brief Review. J Strength Cond Res.; 22(3), 1015-24. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816eb518
Cichocki, A., Zdunek, R., Amari, S.I. (2007). Hierarchical ALS Algorithms for Nonnegative Matrixand 3D Tensor Factorization. in ICA07, London, UK, September 9-12, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4666,169-176. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74494-8_22
Cichocki, A., Zdunek, R., Phan, A.H., Amari, S. (2009). Nonnegative Matrix and Tensor Factorizations. John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Chichester, UK. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470747278
D'Avella, A., Portone, A., Fernandez, L., Lacquaniti, F. (2006). Control of fast-reaching Movements by Muscle synergy combinations. J Neurosci., 26(30), 7791-810. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0830-06.2006
Draper, N., Bird, E. L., Coleman, I., & Hodgson, C. (2006). Effects of Active Recovery on Lactate Concentration, Heart Rate and RPE in Climbing. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 5(1), 97–105.
Elena, S., Georgeta, N., Cecilia, G. (2014). Traditional and Modern Means of Recovery in Sports: Survey on a Sample of Athletes. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 117, 498-504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.02.252
Frère, J., & Hug, F. (2012). Between-subject variability of muscle synergies during a complex motor skill. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 6, 99. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncom.2012.00099
Higgins, T.R., Heazlewood, I.T., Climstein, M. (2011). A Random Control Trial of Contrast Baths and Ice Baths for Recovery during Competition in U/20 Rugby Union. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(4), 1046-51. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181cc269f
Huang, A. & Owen, K. (2012). Role of supplementary L-carnitine in exercise and exercise recovery. Med Sport Sci., 59, 135-42. https://doi.org/10.1159/000341934
Hurst, P., Foad, A., Coleman, D., Beedie, C. (2016). Development and validation of the sports supplements beliefs scale. Performance enhancement & health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peh.2016.10.001
Ingram, J., Dawson, B., Goodman, C., Wallman, K., Beilby, J. (2009). Effect of water immersion methods on post-exercise recovery from simulated team sport exercise, J. Sci. Med. Sport., 12(3), 417-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.12.011
Kaboodvand, N., Towhidkhah, F., Gharibzadeh, S. (2013). Extracting and study of synchronous muscle synergies during fast arm reaching movements. Biomedical Engineering (ICBME), 20th Iranian Conference on. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICBME.2013.6782210
Koohestani, A., Kobravi, H., Koohestani, M. (2014). Identifying the muscle synergy pattern during human grasping. Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging, 33-39. https://doi.org/10.14738/jbemi.16.779
Kyle, U.G., Bosaeus, I., De Lorenzo, A.D., Deurenberg, P., Elia, M., Gómez, J.M. (2004). Bioelectrical impedance analysis part I: review of principles and methods. Clin Nutr., 23(5), 1226-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2004.06.004
Lattier, G., Millet, G.Y., Martin, A., Martin, V. et al. (2004). Fatigue and recovery after high-intensity exercise. Part II: Recovery interventions. Int. J. Sports. Med., 25(7), 509-15. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-820946
Manuel, R., Tillaar, R., Pereira, A., Marquesa, M. (2016). The effect of fatigue and duration knowledge of exercise on kicking performance in soccer players. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 1–7.
Mori, H., Ohsawa, H., Tanaka, T.H., Taniwaki, E., Leisman, G., Nishijo, K. (2004). Effect of massage on blood flow and muscle fatigue following isometric lumbar exercise. Med. Sci. Monit., 10(5), CR173-8.
Robertson, A., Watt, J.M., Galloway, S.D. (2004). Effects of leg massage on recovery from high intensity cycling exercise. Br. J. Sports. Med., 38, 173-176. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2002.003186
Tresch, M.C., Cheung, V.C.K., d'Avella, A. (2006). Matrix factorization algorithms for the identification of synergies: evaluation on simulated and experimental data sets. J. Neurophysiol., 95, 2199 –212. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00222.2005
Tresch, M.C., Jarc, A. (2009). The case for and against muscle synergies. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 19, 601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2009.09.002
Zhuang, C., Marquez, J.C., Qu, H.E., x.He, N.Ln (2015). A neuromuscular electrical stimulation strategy based on muscle synergy for stroke rehabilitation Neural Engineering (NER), 7th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on, 10.1109/NER.2015.7146748.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.