Exercise training programs and detraining in older women

Rafael Oliveira, Carlos Santa-Marinha, Rafael Leão, Diogo Monteiro, Teresa Bento, Rita Santos Rocha, João Paulo Brito

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training programs and detraining. Fifty one aged women participated in two supervised exercise programs: a group of land-based exercise and a group of land-based exercise plus aquatic exercise, both being evaluated at the baseline after nine months of intervention and three months of detraining. After intervention, both groups had decreased blood pressure and improved resistance of the lower and upper limbs. After a detraining period, both groups showed significant increase in blood pressure while resistance of lower and upper limbs, agility and aerobic capacity had a significant decrease.


Keywords

Functional tests; Hemodynamic profile; Anthropometric profile

References

ACSM. (2013). ACSM’s Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (9th ed). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams e Wilkins.

AHA. (2005). Recommendations for Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans and Experimental Animals: Part 1: Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans: A Statement for Professionals From the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research. 45, 142-161.

Alves, R. V., Mota, J., Costa, M. d. C. & Alves, J. G. B. (2004). Aptidão física relacionada à saúde de idosos: influência da hidroginástica. Rev Bras Med Esporte, 10. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-86922004000100003

Baker, M. K., Atlantis, E. & Singh, M. A. F. (2007). Multi-modal exercise programs for older adults. Age Ageing, 36, 375-381. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afm054

Bij, A., Laurant, M. & Wensing, M. (2002). Effectiveness of physical activity interventions for older adults – a review. Am J Prev Med, 22, 120-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(01)00413-5

Bird, M., Hill, K., Ball, M., Hetherington, S. & Williams, A. (2011). The long-term benefits of a multi-component exercise intervention to balance and mobility in healthy older adults. Gerontology and Geriatrics, 52, 211-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2010.03.021

Bocalini, D., Serra, A., Rica, R. & Santos, L. (2010). Repercussions of training and detraining by water-based exercise on functional fitness and quality of life: a short-term follow-up in healthy older women. Clinics (Sao Paulo), 65 (12), 1305-1309. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1807-59322010001200013

Borg, G. (1982). Phychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 14, 377-381. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198205000-00012

Carrilho, M. J. & Patrício, L. (2010). A situação Demográfica Recente em Portugal. Rev Estudos Demográficos, INE, 101-146.

Carvalho, J., Marques, E., Ascenção, A., Magalhães, J., Marques, F. & Mota, J. (2010). Multicomponent exercise program improves blood lipid profile and antioxidant capacity in older women. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 51, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2009.05.020

Carvalho, J., Marques, E. & Mota, J. (2008). Training and Detraining Effects on Functional Fitness after a Multicomponent Training in Older Women. Gerontology, 297, 1-8.

Carvalho, J., Oliveira, J., Magalhães, J., Ascensão, A., Mota, J. & Soares, J. (2003). Efeito de um programa de treino em idosos: comparação da avaliação isocinética e isotónica. Rev Paul Educ Fís, 17 (1), 74-84. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2594-5904.rpef.2003.138845

Cononi, C., Graves, J., Pollock, M., Phillips, I., Sumners, C. & Hagberg, J. (1991). Effect of exercise training on blood pressure in 70- to 79-yr-old men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 23(4), 505-511. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199104000-00018

Davidson, S., Perkin, M. & Buckley, M. (2004). The Measurement of Mass and Weight. Measurement Good Practice Guide, 71. National Physical Laboratory. Teddington, Middlesex, United Kingdom. ISSN 1368-6550.

Dermott, A. & Mernitz, H. (2006). Exercise and older pacients: prescribing guide-lines. Am Fam Physician, 74, 437-444.

Dudley, G. & Snyder, L. (1998). Deconditioning and bed rest: musculoskeletal response. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Fagard, R. (2001). Exercise characteristics and the blood pressure response to dynamic physical training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 33(6), S484-S492. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200106001-00018

Gappmaier, E., Lake, W. & Nelson, A. (2006). Aerobic exercise in water versus walking on land: effects on indices of fat reduction and weight loss of obese women. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 46 (4), 564–569.

Gwinup, G. (1987). Weight loss without dietary restriction: efficacy of different forms of aerobic exercise. Am J Sports Med, 15, 275–279. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354658701500317

Karinkanta, S., Heinonen, A., Sievänen, H., Uusi-Rasi, K., Pasanen, M., Ojala, K., Fogelholm, M., Kannus, P. (2006). A multi-component exercise regimen to prevent functional decline and bone fragility in home-dwelling elderly women: randomized, controlled trial. Osteoporos Int, 18, 453-462. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-006-0256-1

Kelley, G. (1999). Aerobic Exercise and Resting Blood Pressure among Women: A Meta-Analysis. Prev Med, 28, 264–275. https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1998.0417

Monteiro, L., Fiani, C., Freitas, M., Zanetti, M. & Foss, M. (2010). Redução da Pressão Arterial, do IMC e da Glicose após Treinamento Aeróbico em Idosas com Diabete Tipo 2 Arq Bras Cardiol, 95(5), 563-570. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0066-782X2010005000135

Motoyama, M., Sunami, Y., Kinoshita, F., Kiyonaga, A., Tanaka, H., Shindo, M., Irie, T., Urata, H., Sasaki, J., Arakawa, K. (1998). Blood pressure lowering effect of low intensity aerobic training in elderly hypertensive patients. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 30, 818-823.

Nakamura, Y., Tanaka, K., Yabushita, N., Sakai, T. & Shigematsu, R. (2007). Effects of exercise frequency on functional fitness in older adult women. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 44(2), 163-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2006.04.007

Puggaard, L. (2003). Effects of training on functional performance in 65, 75 and 85 year-old women: experiences deriving from community based studies in Odense, Denmark. J Med Sci Sports, 13, 70-76. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0838.2003.00302.x

Rica, R., Carneiro, R., Serra, A., Rodriguez, D., Junior, F. & Bocalini, D. (2013). Effects of water-based exercise in obese older women: impact of short-term follow-up study on anthropometric, functional fitness and quality of life parameters. Geriatr Gerontol Int, 13(1), 209-214. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0594.2012.00889.x

Rikli, R. & Jones, C. (1999a). The development and validation of a functional fitness test for community-residimg older adults. J Aging Phys Activ, 7, 129-161. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.7.2.129

Rikli, R. & Jones, C. (1999b). Functional fitness normative scores for community-residing older adults, ages 60-94. J Aging Phys Activ, 7, 162-181. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.7.2.162

Rose, D., Lucchese, N. & Wiersma, L. (2006). Development of a multidimensional balance scale for use of functionally independent older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 87, 1478-1485. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2006.07.263

Różańska-Kirschke, A., Kocur, P., Wilk, M. & Dylewicz, P. (2006). The Fullerton Fitness Test as an index of fitness in the elderly. Med Rehabil, 10, 9-16.

Santa-Clara, H., Szymanski, L. & Fernhall, B. (2003). Effect of Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Postmenopausal Caucasian and African-American Women. AM J CARDIOL, 91. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9149(03)00128-0

Spirduso, W. & Cronin, D. (2001). Exercise dose-response effects on quality of life and independent living in older subjects Med Sci Sports Exerc, 33, 598-610. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200106001-00028

Stewart, K., Bacher, A., Turner, K., Fleg, J., Hees, P., Shapiro, E., Tayback, M., Ouyang, P. (2005). Effect of exercise on blood pressure in older persons: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med, 165(7), 756-762. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.165.7.756

Stiggelbout, M., Popkema, D., Hopman-Rock, M., Greef, M. & Mechelen, W. (2004). Once a week is not enough: effects of a widely implemented group based exercise programme for older adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Epidemiol Commun H, 58, 83–88. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.58.2.83

Taguchi, N., Higaki, Y., Inoue, S., Kimura, H. & Tanaka, K. (2010). Effects of a 12-Month Multicomponent Exercise Program on Physical Performance, Daily Physical Activity, and Quality of Life in Very Elderly People With Minor Disabilities: An Intervention Study. J Epidemiol, 20, 21-29. https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20081033

Teixeira-Samela, L., Santiago, L., Lima, R., Lana, D., Camargos, F. & Cassiano, J. (2005). Functional performance and quality of life related to training and detraining of community-dwelling elderly. Disabil Rehabil, 27, 1007-1012. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638280500030688

Tokmakidis, S., Spassis, A. & Volaklis, K. (2008). Training, detraining and retraining effects after a water-based exercise program in patients with coronary artery disease. Cardiology, 111, 257-264. https://doi.org/10.1159/000127737

Toraman, N. & Ayceman, N. (2005). Effects of six weeks of detraining on retention of functional fitness of old people after nine weeks of multicomponent training. Br J Sports Med, 39, 565-568. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2004.015586

Toraman, N. & Salin, G. (2004). Age responses to multicomponent training programme in older adults. Disabil Rehabi, 23, 193-200. https://doi.org/10.1080/096382803100001663012

Vianna, M., Cáder, S., Gomes, A., Guimarães, A., Seixas-da-Silva, I., Rêgo, A., Adão, K., Dantas, E. (2012). Aerobic conditioning, blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) of older participants of the Brazilian Family Health Program (FHP) after 16 weeks of guided physical activity. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 54, 210-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2011.02.013

Whelton, S., Chin, A., Chin, X. & He, J. (2002). Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Blood Pressure: A Meta-analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials. Ann Intern Med, 136, 493-503. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-136-7-200204020-00006

Woo, J., Leung, J. & Kwok, T. (2007). BMI, Body Composition, and Physical Functioning in Older Adults. Obesity (Silver Spring), 15, 1886 –1894. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2007.223




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2017.121.12