Self-Assessment of physical fitness in adolescents
Purpose: Physical fitness is an important indicator of the current and future health condition in adolescents. In comparison with institutional testing, self-assessment of physical fitness offers a number of benefits, including minimization or elimination of possible negative experience with inter-individual comparison in the context of motor diagnostics. The main objective of this paper is to determine the distribution normality of the resulting data and the intersexual differences in self-assessment of physical fitness using selected test items of the INDARES battery in adolescents. Method: The study involved a total of 626 adolescents (345 boys and 281 girls) aged 11 to 19 years (14.56 ± 1.95 years) from selected cities in the Czech Republic. The participants performed self-testing of physical fitness by means of selected motor tests (push-ups, modified curl-ups, V-sit and reach and shoulder stretch) from the INDARES test battery. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine the distribution normality of the self-testing data; the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the significance of inter-sexual differences in the average self-testing results. Results: The results showed normal data distribution in most motor tests except the push-up motor test (in boys older than 15 years normality was confirmed). The analysis confirmed the published findings concerning significantly better outcomes of flexibility in girls compared with boys. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the results of self-testing roughly correspond with the published findings based on institutional physical fitness assessment.
Biddle, S.J.H., Pearson, N., Ross, G.M., Braithwaite, R. (2010). Tracking of sedentary behaviours of young people: A systematic review. Prev Med., 51(5), 345-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.07.018
Blair, S.N., Cheng, Y., Holder, J.S. (2001). Is physical activity or physical fitness more important in defining health benefits? Med Sci Sport Exer., 33 (suppl 6), S379-S399. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200106001-00007
Clarke, H.H., Clarke, D.H. (1987). Application of measurement to physical education. 6th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Craig, C.L., Shields, M., Leblanc, A.G., Tremblay, M.S. (2012). Trends in aerobic fitness among Canadians, 1981 to 2007–2009. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism., 37(3), 511-519. https://doi.org/10.1139/h2012-023
Cooper Institute. (2010). Fitnessgram & Activitygram test administration manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Corbin, C.B. (2004). What every physical educator should know about teaching physical activity and fitness. Teaching Elementary Physical Education.,15(1), 7-9.
Cuberek, R., Machová, I., Lipenská, M. (2013). Realiability of V sit-and-reach test used for flexibility self-assessment in females. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 43(1), 35-39. https://doi.org/10.5507/ag.2013.004
Ekblom, B., Engstrom, L.-M., & Ekblom, O. (2007). Secular trends of physical fitness in Swedish adults. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 17(3), 267–273. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2006.00531.x
Froberg, K. (2014). Relations between physical activity, fitness, muscle strength and health: Findings from the European youth hearth study (EYHS). Education. Physical Training. Sport, 2, 10-20.
Graser, S.V., Sampson, B.B., Pennington, T.R., Prusak, K.A. (2011). Children's perceptions of fitness self-testing, the purpose of fitness testing, and personal health. Physical Educator, 68(4), 175-187.
Huotari, P., Sääkslahti, A., Watt, A. (2009). Associations between the self-estimated and actual physical fitness scores of Finnish grade 6 students. Facta Universitatis, Series: Physical Education and Sport., 7(1), 27-36.
INDARES. (2015). International Database for Research and Educational Support. INDARES Web site. http://www.indares.com/public/default.asp. Accessed November 11.
Keith, N.R., Clark, D.O., Stump, T.E., Callahan, C.M. (2015). Validity of self-reported fitness across black and white race, gender, and health literacy subgroups. Am J Health Promot., 29(4), 266-272. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.130531-QUAN-282
Knai, C., Lobstein, T., Darmon, N., Rutter, H., McKee, M. (2012). Socioeconomic patterning of childhood overweight status in Europe. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9(4), 1472-1489. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9041472
Knapik, J.J., Jones, B.H., Reynolds, K.L., Staab, J.S. (1992). Validity of self-assessed physical fitness. Am J Prev Med., 8(6), 367-372.
Liguori, G., Mozumdar, A. (2009). Reliability of self assessments for a cardiovascular fitness assessment. International Journal of Fitness, 5(1):33-40.
MacAllister, J. (2013). The 'Physically Educated' Person: Physical education in the philosophy of Reid, Peters and Aristotle. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 45(9), 908-920. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2013.785353
Malina, R.M., Bouchard, C., Bar-Or, O. (2004). Growth, maturation and physical activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Marta, C.M., Marinho, D.A., Barbosa, T.M., Izquierdo, M., Marques, M.C. (2012). Physical fitness differences between prepubescent boys and girls. J Strength Cond Res., 26(7), 1756-1766. ttps://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825bb4aa
Massicote, D. (2012). Partial curl-ups, push-ups, and multistage 20 meter shuttle run, national norms for 6 to 17 year old. 1st ed. Montreal, Quebec: University of Quebec, CAHPER.
Morgan, C.F., Beighle, A., Pangrazi, R.P., Pangrazi, D. (2004). Using Self-Assessment for Personal Fitness Evaluation. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 15(1), 19-22.
Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Castillo, M.J., Sjöström, M. (2008). Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health. Int J Obesity, 32(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803774
Pangrazi, R.P. (2001). Dynamic physical education for elementary school children. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Plowman, S.A., Meredith, M.D. (Eds.). (2013). Fitnessgram/Activitygram Reference Guide (4th Edition). Dallas, TX: The Cooper Institute.
Prusak III, J.E., Whitehead, J.R., Brinkert, R.H., Eklund, R. (2013). The effects of fitness testing on social physique anxiety and physical self-perceptions. Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences, 4(2), 146-157.
Razali, N.M., Wah, Y.B. (2011). Power comparisons of Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Lilliefors and Anserson-Darling tests. Journal of Statistical Modeling and Analytics, 2(1), 21-33.
Rubín, L., Suchomel, A., Kupr, J. (2012). The relationship between somatic parameters and motor performance in children aged 10–12 years. Česká kinantropologie, 16(2), 106-118. [In Czech, English abstract]
Sánchez-López, M., Martínez-Vizcaíno, V., García-Hermoso, A., Jiménez-Pavón, D., Ortega, F.B. (2015). Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) in Spanish children aged 9-12 years. Scand J Med Sci Spor., 25(4), 543-551. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12267
Schuler, P.B., Marzilli, T.S. (2003). Use of self-reports of physical fitness as substitutes for performance-based measures of physical fitness in older adults. Percept Motor Skill., 96(2), 414-420. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.2003.96.2.414
Silverman, S., Keating, X.D., Phillips, S.R. (2008). A Lasting Impression: A pedagogical Perspective on Youth fitness Testing. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science., 12(3), 146-166. https://doi.org/10.1080/10913670802216122
Telama, R. (2009). Tracking of Physical Activity from Childhood to Adulthood: A Review. Obesity Facts, 2(3), 187-195. https://doi.org/10.1159/000222244
Tomkinson, G.R., Léger, L.A., Olds, T.S., Cazorla, G. (2003). Secular trends in the performance of children and adolescents (1980–2000). Sports Medicine, 33(4), 285-300. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333040-00003
Tomkinson, G.R., Olds, T.S. (2007). Secular changes in pediatric aerobic fitness test performance: The global picture. Medicine and Sport Science, 50, 46-66. https://doi.org/10.1159/000101075
Vanhelst, J., Béghin, L., Fardy, P.S., Ulmer, Z., Czaplicki, G. (2014). Reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in adolescents: the MOVE Program. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 36(2), 106-111. https://doi.org/10.1111/cpf.12202
Vignerová, J., Riedlová, J., Bláha, P., Kobzová, J., Krejčovský, L., Brabec, M., Hrušková, M. (2006). 6th Nation-wide Anthropological Survey of Children and Adolescents 2001 Czech Republic. Praha: Univerzita Karlova v Praze a Státní zdravotní ústav.
Welk, G.J., Wood, K. (2000). Physical activity assessments in physical education: A practical review of instruments and their use in the curriculum. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 71(1), 30-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2000.10605982
Whitehead, J.R., Pemberton, C.L., Corbin, C.B. (1990). Perspectives on the physical fitness testing of children: The case for a realistic educational approach. Pediatr Exerc Sci., 2(2), 111-123. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.2.2.111
Zaharia, A.M., Raţă, G. (2014). Increasig the quality of life in female adolescents by improving their physical fitness. Science, Movement and Health, 14(2), 211-216.
Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.