Difficult group goal improves serve reception of experienced volleyball players
This study investigated the effects of group goals difficulty on volleyball jump topspin serve reception with 36 experienced volleyball players. The volunteers performed an initial evaluation, whose results were organized in accordance to the level of performance and them divided into three similar groups: no goal, 10% and 30% group goal difficulty. Volunteers performed 810 receptions divided in 10 sessions during acquisition phase whose performance was scored from zero to 14 points. On retention test, the 30% of goal difficulty showed higher performance accuracy than 10% or no goal at all.
Brawley, L. R., Carron, A. V., & Widmeyer, W. N. (1992). The nature of group goals in sport teams: A phenomenological analysis. The Sport Psychology, 6, 323-333. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.6.4.323
Burton, D. (1994). Goal setting in sport. In Singer, R.N., Murphey, M., & Tennant, L.K. (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Sport Psychology. pp. 467-491. New York, Macmillan.
Burton, D., & Naylor, S. (2002). The Jekyll/Hyde nature of goals: Revisiting and updating goal setting in sport. In Horn, T. (Ed.), Advances in Sport Psychology. pp. 459-499. Champaign, Human Kinetics, (2nd ed.).
Durham, C. C., Knight, D., & Locke, E. A. (1997). Effects of leader role, team-set goal difficulty, efficacy and tactics on team effectiveness. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 72, 203-231. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1997.2739
Guthrie, J. P., & Hollensbe E. C. (2004). Group incentives and performance: A study of spontaneous goal setting, goal choice and commitment. Journal of Management, 30, 263-284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jm.2003.02.001
Hinsz, V. B. (1991). Individual versus group goal decision-making: Social comparison in goals for individual task performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 987-1003. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1991.tb00454.x
Hinsz, V. B. (1995). Group and individual decision making for task performance goals: Processes in the establishment of goals in groups. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25, 353-370. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1995.tb02396.x
Hollenbeck, J. R., Williams, C. R., & Klein, H. J. (1989). An empirical examination of the antecedents of commitment to difficult goals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 18-23. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.1.18
Johnson, S. R., Ostrow, A. C., Perna, F. M., & Etzel, E. F. (1997). The effects of group versus individual goal setting on bowling performance. The Sports Psychologist, 11, 190-200. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.11.2.190
Kyllo, L. B., & Landers, D. M. (1995). Goal setting in sport and exercise: A research synthesis to resolve the controversy. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17, 117-137. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.17.2.117
Lee, C. (1988). The relationship between goal setting, self-efficacy and female field hockey team performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 60, 147-161.
Locke, E. A. (1991). Problems with goal-setting research in sports and their solution. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 8, 311-316. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.13.3.311
Locke, E. A. (1994). Comments on Weinberg and Weigand. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 16, 212-215. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.16.2.212
Locke, E. A., & Lathan, G. P. (1985). The application of goal setting to sports. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7, 205-222. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.7.3.205
Locke, E. A., & Lathan, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task motivation. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall.
Locke, E. A., Shaw, K. N., Saari, L. M., & Lathan, G. P. (1981). Goal setting and task performance. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 125-152. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.90.1.125
Mitchell, T. R. & Silver, W. S. (1990). Individual and group goals when workers are interdependent: Effects on task strategies and performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 75, 185-193. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.2.185
Mooney, R. P., & Mutrie, N. (2000). The effects of goal specificity and goal difficulty on the performance of badminton skills in children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 12, 270-283. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.12.3.270
O´leary-kelly, A. M., Martocchio, J. J., & Frink, D. D. (1994). A review of the influence of group goals on group performance. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 1285-1301. https://doi.org/10.2307/256673
Schmidt, R. A., & Lee, T. D. (2005). Motor Control and Learning: a behavior emphasis. (4th ed). Champaign, Human Kinetics.
Souza, G., & Klein, H. (1995). Emergent leadership in the group goal-setting process. Small Group Research, 26, 475-496. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496495264002
Tenenbaum, G., Bar-eli, M., & Yaaron, M. (1999). The dynamics of goal-setting: Interactive effects of goal difficulty, goal specificity and duration of practice time intervals. Journal of Sport Psychology, 30, 325-338.
Thomas, J. R., Nelson, J. K., & Silverman, S. J. (2005). Research Methods in Physical Activity. Champaign, Human Kinetics.
Weinberg, R. S. (2001). Motivation in sport and exercise: the special case of goal-setting. In Anais do 10th World Congress of Sport Psychology, (pp. 247-260). Hellas.
Weinberg, R. S., & Weigand, D. (1993). Goal setting in sport and exercise: a reaction to Locke. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15, 88-96. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.15.1.88
Weingart, L. R. (1992). The impact of group goals, task component complexity, effort and planning on group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 682-693. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.5.682
Weldon, E., & Weingart, L. R. (1993). Group goals and group performance. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 307-334. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1993.tb01003.x
Weldon, E., Jehn, K. A., & Pradhan, P. (1991). Process that mediate the relationship between a group goal and improved group performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 555-569. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1245
Widmeyer, W. N., & Ducharme, K. (1997). Team building through team goal setting. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 9, 97-113. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413209708415386