Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Lipid profile, cardiorespiratory function and quality of life of postmenopausal women improves with aerobic exercise

Lady Gwendoline Akwa, Monday Omoniyi Moses, Abigael Omowumi Emikpe, Biggie Baffour-Awuah, Benjamin Asamoah, Otchere Addai-Mensah, Max Annani-Akollor, Francis Osei, Eric Junior Appiah



Objective: Menopause is characterized by physiological changes with increased risk of obesity, dyslipidemia and decreased quality of life (QoL). Despite the plethora of reports on the alleviating effect of exercise on climacteric symptoms, there is little documentation of this lifestyle intervention among Ghanaian menopausal women. This study examined the effect of aerobic exercise on lipid profile, cardiorespiratory function and QoL among menopausal women. Methods: Eighteen sedentary postmenopausal women between 45 to 75 years were randomly assigned to experimental (EG, n=8) and control (CG, n=10) groups. The EG received moderate intensity aerobic exercise training for eight weeks, three times a week while the CG observed normal daily activities. Blood pressure, resting heart rate, BMI, and lipid profile were measured and QoL assessed using the Utian QoL questionnaire at weeks 0 and 9. Results: After 8 weeks, the EG demonstrated significant decrease in cardiovascular risk ratio by 6.5L% and a non-significant decrease in LDL by 11.9L%. The CG showed significant increase in systolic BP by 3.2%L and a non-significant increase in LDL and cardiovascular risk by 14.9L% and 9.4L% respectively. QoL significantly improved in the EG group compared to CG after the 8 weeks. Conclusion: The health and QoL of participants in EG was significantly better than the CG at the end of the experiment. Aerobic exercise decreases cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women and shows potential impact on lipid profile and health QoL. Proactively sponsored aerobic exercise programmes geared towards healthy living of postmenopausal women in Kumasi, Ghana are recommended.


Blood pressure; Heart rate; Body mass index; Lipid profile; Quality of life


ACSM. (2014). ACSM Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (Vol. 37).

Adanu, R. M. K., Hill, a G., Seffah, J. D., Darko, R., Anarfi, J. K., & Duda, R. B. (2006). Secular trends in menarcheal age among Ghanaian women in Accra. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology : The Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 26(6), 550–4.

Agil, A., Abike, F., Daskapan, A., Alaca, R., & Tuzun, H. (2010). Short-term exercise approaches on menopausal symptoms, psychological health, and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol Int, 2010.

Al-Safi, Z. A., & Polotsky, A. J. (2015). Obesity and Menopause. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 29(4), 548–553.

Ammar, T. (2015). Effects of aerobic exercise on blood pressure and lipids in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 11(3), 145–150.

Arthur, K. N. F., Adu-Frimpong, M., Osei-Yeboah, J., Obu Mensah, F., & Owusu, L. (2013). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its predominant components among pre-and postmenopausal Ghanaian women. BMC Research Notes, 6(1), 446.

Atapattu, P. M., & De, A. (2015). iMedPub Journals Menopause and Exercise : Linking Pathophysiology to Effects, 1–8.

Avis, N. E., Carolina, N., & Crawford, S. L. (2015). Duration of Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms Over the Menopause Transition. JAMA : The Journal of the American Medical Association, 175(4), 531–539.

Borud, E. K., Alraek, T., White, A., & Grimsgaard, S. (2010). The Acupuncture on Hot Flashes Among Menopausal Women study: observational follow-up results at 6 and 12 months. Menopause (New York, N.Y.), 17, 262–268.

Broekmans, F. J., Knauff, E. a H., te Velde, E. R., Macklon, N. S., & Fauser, B. C. (2007). Female reproductive ageing: current knowledge and future trends. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM, 18(2), 58–65.

Chen, G. Z., Xu, Y. X., Zhang, J. W., Liu, S. H., & Guo, Z. Y. (2010). Effect of acupoint catgut-embedding on the quality of life, reproductive endocrine and bone metabolism of postmenopausal women. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, 16(6), 498–503.

Chen, X., Zheng, Y., Zheng, W., Gu, K., Chen, Z., Lu, W., & Shu, X. O. (2009). Effect of Regular Exercise on Quality of Life Among Breast Cancer Survivors _ American Journal of Epidemiology _ Oxford Academic. Am J Epidemiol, 170(7), 854–862.

Conde, L. I. O. M., Pinto-Neto, O. M., Santos-Sa, D., Costa-Paiva, L., & Martinez, E. Z. (2006). Factors associated with quality of life in a cohort of postmenopausal women. Gynecological Endocrinology, 22(8), 441–446.

Cornelissen, V. A., & Smart, N. A. (2013). Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Heart Association, 2(1).

Dalleck, L. C., Allen, B. A., Hanson, B. A., Borresen, E. C., Erickson, M. E., & De Lap, S. L. (2009). Dose-response relationship between moderate-intensity exercise duration and coronary heart disease risk factors in postmenopausal women. Journal of Women's Health, 18(1), 105–113.

de Villiers, T. J., Bagratee, J. S., Dalmeyer, J. P., Davey, M. R., Davis, C. P., Guidozzi, F., … van Waart, J. (2007). South African menopause society council revised consensus position statement on menopausal hormone therapy. South African Medical Journal, 97(5), 354–357.

De Villiers, T. J., Gass, M. L. S., Haines, C. J., Hall, J. E., Lobo, R. A., Pierroz, D. D., & Rees, M. (2013). Global Consensus Statement on menopausal hormone therapy. Maturitas, 74(4), 391–392.

Deroo, B. J., Korach, K. S., Barros, R. P. a, Gustafsson, J.-A. J.-Å. a, Brzozowski, A. M., Pike, A. C., … Stro, A. (2014). Estrogen receptors and human disease. Nature, 116(3), 561–570.

Diep, C. H., Daniel, A. R., Mauro, L. J., Knutson, T. P., & Lange, C. A. (2015). Progesterone action in breast, uterine, and ovarian cancers. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology.

Dotlic, J., Gazibara, T., Rancic, B., Radovanovic, S., Milosevic, B., Kurtagic, I., … Utian, W. (2015). Translation and validation of the Utian Quality of Life Scale in Serbian peri- and postmenopausal women. Menopause: The Journal Of The North American Menopause Society, 22(9), 984–992.

Dyck, L., & Frisby, W. (2000). The Health Benefits of Physical Activity for Girls and Women. Canada. Retrieved from

Fahlman, M. M., Boardley, D., Lambert, C. P., & Flynn, M. G. (2002). Effects of Endurance Training and Resistance Training on Plasma Lipoprotein Profiles in Elderly Women. Journal of Gerontology: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES America, 57(2), 54–60.

Farahmand, M., Ramezani Tehrani, F., Bahri Khomami, M., Noroozzadeh, M., & Azizi, F. (2015). Surgical menopause versus natural menopause and cardio-metabolic disturbances: A 12-year population-based cohort study. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 38(7), 761–767.

Ferdous, T., Jahan, N., Sultana, N., Akhter, H., Islam, M. M., & Alam, M. R. (2011). Physical Exercise is More Effective Than HRT in Improving Lipid Profile Status in Postmenopausal Women. Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol, 27(1&2), 9–12.

Freeman, E. W., Sammel, M. D., Lin, H., & Garcia, C. R. (2010). Obesity and reproductive hormone levels in the transition to menopause. Menopause, 17(4), 678–679.

Freeman, E. W., Sammel, M. D., & Sanders, R. J. (2015). Risk of Long Term Hot Flashes After Natural Menopause : Evidence From the Penn Ovarian Aging. Menopause, 21(9), 924–932.

GNDP. (2004). Standard Treatment Guidelines − Ghana. Accra.

Hackney, A. C. (2017). Sex Hormones, Exercise and Women.

Heringa, S. M., Begemann, M. J. H., Goverde, A. J., & Sommer, I. E. C. (2015). Sex hormones and oxytocin augmentation strategies in schizophrenia: A quantitative review. Schizophrenia Research, 168(3), 603–613.

Jones, G. L., & Sutton, a. (2008). Quality of life in obese postmenopausal women. Menopause International, 14(1), 26–32.

Kelley, G. A., Kelley, K. S., & Tran, Z. V. (2005). Exercise, Lipids, and Lipoproteins in Older Adults: A Meta‐Analysis. Preventive Cardiology, 8(4), 206–214.

Kim, J. J., Kurita, T., & Bulun, S. E. (2013). Progesterone action in endometrial cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Endocrine Reviews.

Kwawukume, E. Y., Ghosh, T. S., & Wilson, J. B. (1993). Menopausal age of Ghanaian women. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 40(2), 151–155.

Lima, A. H. R. de A., Couto, H. E., Cardoso, G. A., Toscano, Lidiane Tavares Silva, A. S., & Mota, M. P. G. (2012). Aerobic Training does not Alter Blood Pressure in Menopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome. Arquivo Da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia, 99(5), 979–987.

Martyn-St James, M., & Carroll, S. (2009). A meta-analysis of impact exercise on postmenopausal bone loss: the case for mixed loading exercise programmes. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(12), 898–908.

Messier, V., Karelis, A. D., Lavoie, M. E., Brochu, M., Faraj, M., Strychar, I., & Rabasa-Lhoret, R. (2009). Metabolic profile and quality of life in class I sarcopenic overweight and obese postmenopausal women: a MONET study. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition et Metabolisme, 34(1), 18–24.

Millan, J., Pinto, X., Munoz, A., Zuniga, M., Rubies-Prat, J., Pallardo, L. F., … Pedro-Botet, J. (2009). Lipoprotein ratios: Physiological significance and clinical usefulness in cardiovascular prevention. Vascular Health and Risk Management, 5, 757–765.

Morgan, M. L., Cook, I. A., Rapkin, A. J., & Leuchter, A. F. (2005). Estrogen augmentation of antidepressants in perimenopausal depression: A pilot study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66(6), 774–780.

Nelson, H. D., Walker, M., Zakher, B., & Mitchell, J. (2014). Review Annals of Internal Medicine Menopausal Hormone Therapy for the Primary Prevention of Chronic Services Task Force Recommendations. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157:104-113., 157(2).

Nikpour, S., & Haghani, H. (2014). The effect of exercise on quality of life in postmenopausal women referred to the Bone densitometry centers of Iran University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Mid-Life Health, 5(4), 176–179.

Ohemeng, F. (2009). The Meaning of Menopause among Ghanaian-Canadian Women. Ghana Social Science Journal, 236–258.

Pattyn, N., Cornelissen, V. A., Eshghi, S. R. T., & Vanhees, L. (2013). The effect of exercise on the cardiovascular risk factors constituting the metabolic syndrome: A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Sports Medicine, 43(2), 121–133.

Perry, J. R. B., Murray, A., Day, F. R., & Ong, K. K. (2015). Molecular insights into the aetiology of female reproductive ageing. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 11(12), 725–734.

Saha, K. R., Rahman, M. M., Paul, A. R., Das, S., Haque, S., Jafrin, W., & Mia, A. R. (2013). Changes in lipid profile of postmenopausal women. Mymensingh Medical Journal : MMJ, 22(4), 706–711.

Schwartz, E., Morelli, V., & Holtorf, K. (2011). Hormone Replacement Therapy in the Geriatric Patient: Current State of the Evidence and Questions for the Future-Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Thyroid Hormone Augmentation in Geriatric Clinical Practice: Part 2. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine.

Stachowiak, G., Pertyński, T., & Pertyńska-Marczewska, M. (2015). Metabolic disorders in menopause. Przeglad Menopauzalny, 14(1), 59–64.

Staessen, J. A., van der Heijden-Spek, J. J., Safar, M. E., Den Hond, E., Gasowski, J., Fagard, R. H., … Van Bortel, L. M. (2001). Menopause and the characteristics of the large arteries in a population study. J Hum Hypertens, 15(8), 511–518.

Swift, D. L., Earnest, C. P., Blair, S. N., & Church, T. S. (2012). The effect of different doses of aerobic exercise training on endothelial function in postmenopausal women with elevated blood pressure: results from the DREW study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(10), 753–8.

Te Velde, E. R., & Pearson, P. L. (2002). The variability of female reproductive ageing. Human Reproduction Update.

Teoman, N., Özcan, A., & Acar, B. (2004). The effect of exercise on physical fitness and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Maturitas, 47(1), 71–77.

Todd, C. A., Sanchez, A. M., Garcia, A., Denny, T. N., & Sarzotti-Kelsoe, M. (2014). Implementation of Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines within the External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL). Journal of Immunological Methods.

Tornqvist, L., Vartia, P., & Vartia, Y. O. (1985). How Should Relative Changes Be Measured? The American Statistician, 39(1), 43–46.

Trabka, B., Zubrzycki, I. Z., Ossowski, Z., Bojke, O., Clarke, A., Wiacek, M., & Latosik, E. (2014). Effect of a MAST Exercise Program on Anthropometric Parameters, Physical Fitness, and Serum Lipid Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women. Journal of Human Kinetics, 42(1), 149–155.

Utian, W., & Boggs, P. (1999). Postmenopausal Women's Perceptions about Menopause and Midlife.pdf. Menopause International, 6(2), 122–128.

Utian, W. H. (2007). Quality of life (QOL) in menopause. Maturitas, 57(1), 100–102.

Villaverde Gutiérrez, C., Torres Luque, G., Ábalos Medina, G. M., Argente del Castillo, M. J., Guisado, I. M., Guisado Barrilao, R., & Ramírez Rodrigo, J. (2012). Influence of exercise on mood in postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(7–8), 923–928.

Zöllner, Y. F., Acquadro, C., & Schaefer, M. (2005). Literature Review of Instruments to Assess Health-Related Quality of Life during and after Menopause. Quality of Life Research, 14(2), 309–327.


Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.