Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Emotions and the sustainability of community sport organizations

Jesus Rodriguez-Pomeda, Fernando Casani, Leyla Angélica Sandoval Hamón



Even when literature about CSOs (community sport organizations) has dealt with some aspects related to its sustainability, little research has been undertaken on the links between participants’ emotions and CSOs sustainability.  CSOs usually depends on volunteering, so specific issues about its sustainability should be considered. This study follows a qualitative methodology to draw data from interviews with tennis participants (seven players and two coaches) of three CSO located in Madrid, Spain. Anxiety about the match outcome, happiness and joy at wins, and sadness in some defeats appear as their dominant emotions. These results are connected with those obtained by the literature on PSOs’ (professional sport organizations) fandom. The proximity of the two sets of emotions points to the relevance of emotionally constructed communities of members for CSOs’ sustainability, as it has shown for PSOs.


Tennis players; Performance; Behaviour; Strategy; Management


Allison, M. 2001. Sport Clubs in Scotland. Edinburgh: sport. Scotland.

Ampofo-Boateng, K., Mohd. Yusof, S., Rahizan Abd. Rahim, M.,and Suun, A. 2007. The Motives Young Malaysians Assign for Participating in Tennis. Annals of Leisure Research, 10(2), 196-214.

Casani, F.; Rodriguez-Pomeda, J., and Sanchez, F. 2012. Los nuevos modelos de negocio en la economía creativa: emociones y redes sociales [The new business models in the creative economy: emotions and social networks]. Universia Business Review,33, 48-69.

Casper, J. 2007. Sport Commitment, Participation Frequency and Purchase Intention Segmentation based on Age, Gender, Income and Skill Level with US Tennis Participants. European Sport Management Quarterly, 7(3), 269-282.

Cialdini, R.B.; Borden, R.J.; Thorne, A.; Walker, M.R.; Freeman, S.; Sloan, L.R. 1976. Basking in Reflected Glory: Three (Football) Field Studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34(3), 366-375.

Consejo Superior de Deportes. 2012. Encuesta de hábitos deportivos 2010 [Survey on sport practice 2010]. Available at

Cuskelly, G. 2004. Volunteer Retention in Community Sport Organisations. European Sport Management Quarterly, 4, 59-76.

de Ruyter, K., and Wetzels, M. 2000. With a little help from my fans –Extending models of pro-social behavior to explain supporters' intentions to buy soccer club shares. Journal of Economic Psychology, 21, 387-409.

Ebeck, V. 1994. Self-perception and motivational characteristics of tennis participants: The influence of age and skill. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 6(1), 71-86.

Enjolras, B., and Holmen Waldahl, R. 2009. Democratic Governance and Oligarchy in Voluntary Sport Organizations: The Case of the Norwegian Olympic Committee and Confederation of Sports. European Sport Management Quarterly, 10(2), 215-239.

Fink, J.S.; Trail, G.T., and Anderson, D.F. 2002. An Examination of Team Identification: Which Motives are Most Salient to its Existence? International Sports Journal, 6(2), 195-207.

Gray, S. 2004. Team Club Sport Clubs for Adults: A Model. American Association of Behavioral Social Science Online Journal, 7, 44-48.

Griffiths, P.E. 2003. III. Basic Emotions, Complex Emotions, Machiavellian Emotions. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement, 52, 39-67.

Hall, M.H., Andrukow, A., Barr, C., Brock, K., de Wit, M., Embuldeniya, D., et al. 2003. The capacity to serve: A qualitative study of the challenges facing Canada's nonprofit and voluntary organizations. Toronto, ON: Canadian Centre for Philanthropy.

Hamil, S., and Chadwick, S. 2010. Introduction and market overview. In Hamil, S. & Chadwick, S. (eds.) Managing Football: An International Perspective. Oxford: Butterworth-Heineman. Pp. 3-16.

Harris, S., Mori, K. and Collins, M. 2009. Great Expectations: Voluntary Sports Clubs and Their Role in Delivering National Policy for English Sport. Voluntas 20(4): 405–423.

Holt, D.B. 1995. How consumers consume: A typology of consumption practices. The Journal of Consumer Research, 22, 1-16.

Koenigstorfer, J.; Groeppel-Klein, A., and Schmitt, M. 2010. "You'll Never Walk Alone" –How Loyal Are Soccer Fans to Their Clubs When They Are Struggling Against Relegation? Journal of Sport Management, 24, 649-675.

Mackie, D.M.; Smith, E.R., and Ray, D.G. 2008. Intergroup Emotions and Intergroup Relations. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(5), 1866-1880.

Madrigal, R. (1995). Cognitive and Affective Determinants of Fan Satisfaction with Sporting Event Attendance. Journal of Leisure Research, 27(3), 205–227.

Madrigal, R. 2003. Investigating an Evolving Leisure Experience: Antecedents and Consequences of Spectator Affect During a Live Sport Event. Journal of Leisure Research, 35(1), 23-48.

Maffesoli, M. 1988. Le Temps des tribus. Paris: Méridiens Klincksieck.

Miles, M.B., and Huberman, A.M. 1984. Qualitative Data Analysis. A Sourcebook of New Methods.Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Misener, K., and Doherty, A. 2009. A Case Study of Organizational Capacity in Nonprofit Community Sport. Journal of Sport Management, 23, 457-482.

Misener, K., Doherty, A., & Hamm-Kerwin, S. (2010). Learning From the Experiences of Older Adult Volunteers in Sport: A Serious Leisure Perspective. Journal of Leisure Research, 42(2), 267–289.

Ortony, A.; Clore, G.L., and Collins, A. 1994. The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. 2nd reprint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pine II, B.J., and Gilmore, J.H. 1998. Welcome to the Experience Economy. Harvard Business Review, 76(4),97-105.

Ryan, G. W., and Russell Bernard, H. 2000. Data Management and Analysis Methods. In Denzin, N.K., and Lincoln, Y.S. (eds.). Handbook of Qualitative Research. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 769-802.

Sandvoss, C. 2005. One-Dimensional Fan: Toward an Aesthetic of Fan Texts. American Behavioral Scientist, 48,822-839.

Snyder, C .; Lassegard, M.; and Ford, C. 1986. Distancing after group success and failure: Basking in reflected glory off reflected failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 382-388.

Spears, R.; Doosje, B., and Ellemers, N. 1999. Commitment and context in the social perception. In N. Ellemers, R. Spears, & B. Doosje (Eds.), Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Context. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 59-83.

Statistics Canada 2005. Cornerstones of Community: Highlights of the National Survey of Nonprofit and Voluntary Organizations. 2003 revised. Revised edition June 2005.Ottawa: Minister of Industry.

Storm, R.K. 2009. The rational emotions of FC København: A lesson on generating profit in professional soccer. Soccer & Society, 10(3-4), 459-476.

Tapp, A. 2004. The loyalty of football fans –we'll support you evermore? The Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 11, 2033-215.

Taylor, T., Darcy, S., Hoye, R., and Cuskelly, G. 2006. Using Psychological Contract.

Theory to Explore Issues in Effective Volunteer Management. European Sport Management Quarterly, 6(2), 123-147.

Underwood, R.; Bond, E. and Baer, R. 2001. Building Service Brands Via Social Identity: Lessons from the sports marketplace. Journal of Marketing, Theory and Practice, 9(1), 1-13.

Vallerand, R.J., and Blanchard, C.M. 2000. The Study of Emotion in Sport and Exercise. Historical, Definitional, and Conceptual Perspectives, in Hanin, Y.L. (ed.) 2000. Emotions in Sport, 3-38.

Wollheim, R. 1999. On the emotions. New Haven, CT, & London: Yale University Press.

Yzerbyt, V.Y.; Dumont, M.; Mathieu, B.; Gordijn, E., & Wigboldus, D. 2006. Social comparison and group-based emotions. In Guimond, S. (ed.), Social comparison and social psychology: Understanding cognition, intergroup relations and culture. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, pp. 174-205.


Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.