Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Diurnal performance of university students’ chronotypes

Pavol Pivovarniček, Dominika Kondrátová, Ľudmila Jančoková, Tomáš Malý



The aim of the study was to investigate the differences between chronotypes of university students (n = 19) during morning and evening physical performance parameters: reaction time (RT), tapping frequency (TF) and jump abilities (JA). The results did not show differences between a chronotype’s morning vs. evening performance (RT: F(2.16) = 0.279, p > 0.05, η2 = 0.03 vs. F(2.16) = 0.255, p > 0.05, η2 = 0.03; TF: F(2.16) = 0.869, p > 0.05, η2 = 0.10 vs. F(2.16) = 0.402, p > 0.05, η2 = 0.05; SJ: F(2.16) = 0.136, p > 0.05, η2 = 0.02 vs. F(2.16) = 0.022, p > 0.05, η2 = 0.002 and CMJ: F(2.16) = 0.068, p > 0.05, η2 = 0.01 vs. F(2.16) = 0.051, p > 0.05, η2 = 0.01). There were no differences (p > 0.05) between groups of chronotypes from the point of view of diurnal performance. It follows that it will not be important when our examined group – young people (university students) will realize the physical activity (concerning mainly RT, TF and JA) from the point of view of time of day (despite of different chronotypes).


Evening performance; Jump abilities; Morning performance; Reaction time; Tapping frequency


Abe, T., Inoue, Y., Komada, Y., Nakamura, M., Asaoka, S., Kanno, M., ... and Takahashi, K. (2011). Relation between morningness-eveningness score and depressive symptoms among patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome. Sleep Medicine, 12, 680-684.

Arendt, J. (1998). Biological rhythms: the science of chronobiology. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 32, 27-35.

Aschoff, J. (1990). Interdependence between locomotor activity and duration of wakefulness in humans during isolation. Experientia, 46, 870-871.

Aschoff, J. (1995). Changing gears in the human circadian mechanism. Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift, 145, 393-396.

Aschoff, J. (1998). Circadian parameters as individual characteristics. Journal of biological rhythms, 13, 123-131.

Atkinson, G., Todd, C., Reilly, T., and Waterhouse, J. (2005). Diurnal variation in cycling performance: influence of warm-up. Journal of sports sciences, 23, 321-329.

Barbosa, F.F., and Albuquerque, F.S. (2008). Effect of the time-of-day of training on explicit memory. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research, 41, 477-481.

Baxter, C., and Reilly, T. (1983). Influence of time of day on all-out swimming. British journal of sports medicine, 17, 122-127.

Biss, R.K., and Hasher, L. (2012). Happy as a lark: morning-type younger and older adults are higher in positive affect. Emotion, 12, 437-441.

Brown, F.M., Neft, E.E., and LaJambe, C.M. (2008). Collegiate rowing crew performance varies by morningness-eveningness. Journal of Strength and Conditioning research / National Strength and Conditioning Association, 22, 1894-1900.

Edwards, B.J., Edwards, W., Waterhouse, J., Atkinson, G., and Reilly, T. (2012). Can cycling performance in an early morning, laboratory-based cycle time-trial be improved by morning exercise the day before? International journal of sports medicine, 26, 651-656.

Harriss, D. J., and Atkinson, G. (2011). Update - Ethical Standards in Sport and Exercise Science Research. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 32, 819-821.

Hagenauer, M.H., Ku, J.H., and Lee, T.M. (2011). Chronotype changes during puberty depend on gonadal hormones in the slow-developing rodent, Octodondegus. Hormones and behavior, 60, 37-45.

Hayes, L.D., Bickerstaff, G.F., and Baker, J.S. (2010). Interactions of cortisol, testosterone, and resistance training: influence of circadian rhythms. Chronobiology international, 27, 675-705.

Henst, R.H., Jaspers, R.T., Roden, L.C., and Rae, D.E. (2015). A chronotype comparison of South African and Dutch marathon runners: The role of scheduled race start times and effects on performance. Chronobiology international, 32, 858-868.

Horne, J.A., and Östberg, O. (1976). A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. International journal of chronobiology, 4, 97-110.

Kitamura, S., Hida, A., Watanabe, M., Enomoto, M., Aritake-Okada, S., Moriguchi, Y., ... and Mishima, K. (2010). Evening preference is related to the incidence of depressive states independent of sleep-wake conditions. Chronobiology international 27, 1797-1812.

Konrad, S., and Jankowski, K.S. (2012). Morningness-eveningness and temperament: The Regulative Theory of Temperament perspective. Personality and Individual Differences, 56, 734-739.

Kunorozva, L., Roden, L.C., and Rae, D.E. (2014). Perception of effort in morning-type cyclists is lower when exercising in the morning. Journal of sports sciences, 32, 917-925.

McGowan, C., Pyne, D., Thompson, K., Raglin, J., and Rattray, B. (2017). Morning Exercise: Enhancement of Afternoon Sprint-Swimming Performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12, 605-611.

Muro, A., Gomà-i-Freixanet, M., Adan, A., and Cladellas, R. (2011). Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample. Chronobiology international, 28, 690-696.

Neiva, H.P., Marques, M.C, Barbosa, T.M., Izquierdo, M., and Marinho, D.A. (2014). Warm-Up and Performance in Competitive Swimming. Sports Medicine, 44, 319-330.

Neiva, H.P., Marques, M.C., Fernandes, R.J., Viana, J.L., Barbosa, T.M., and Marinho, D.A. (2014). Does Warm-Up Have a Beneficial Effect on 100-m Freestyle? Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 9, 145-150.

Rae, D.E., Stephenson, K.J., and Roden L.C. (2015). Factors to consider when assessing diurnal variation in sports performance: the influence of chronotype and habitual training time-of-day. European journal of applied physiology, 115, 1339-1349.

Reilly, T., Atkinson, G., Edwards, B., Waterhouse, J., Farrelly, K., and Fairhurst, E. (2007). Diurnal variation in temperature, mental and physical performance, and tasks specifically related to football (soccer). Chronobiology international, 24, 507-519.

Schaal, S., Peter, M., and Randler, CH. (2010). Morningness‐eveningness and physical activity in adolescents. International journal of sport and exercise psychology, 8, 147-159.

Tzischinsky, O., and Shochat, T. (2011). Eveningness, sleep patterns, daytime functioning, and quality of life in Israeli adolescents. Chronobiology international, 28, 338-343.

Waterhouse, J., Drust, B., Weinert, D., Edwards, B., Gregson, W., Atkinson, G., … and Reilly, T. (2005). The circadian rhythm of core temperature: Origin and some implications for exercise performance. Chronobiology international, 22, 207-225.

Zeman, M. (2009). Začíname ich fungovaniu rozumieť [Getting understand their funtion. In Slovak.]. Žurnál, 3, 66-67.


Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.