Lactate distribution in red blood cells and plasma after a high intensity running exercise in aerobically trained and untrained subjects
Keywords:Lactate, Aerobic capacity, Running, Red blood cells, Erythrocytes, Plasma
Introduction: To determine endurance capacity and to give specific training recommendations, blood lactate (LA) concentrations are frequently used in performance diagnostics. In blood, LA is stored in red blood cells (RBC) and in plasma. Higher LA uptake by RBC might lead to delayed muscle fatigue since RBC serve as a dilution space for LA and more LA can be taken up by plasma which is released from the working muscle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of lactate in plasma and RBC in aerobically well trained athletes (AA) in comparison to an untrained control group (CG). Materials and Methods: 13 AA and 13 CG participated in this study and conducted a high intensive treadmill test consisting of 2x4 minutes of running at 95% of the maximal running velocity with an active break of 4 minutes. Venous blood was drawn before and after the test. LA was measured in whole blood, plasma and RBC. Further, the ratio (LARatio) was calculated using the following formula: LA of RBC / LA of plasma. Results: AA exhibit significantly higher values in VO2peak and maximum running velocity. After the running test, LA in whole blood, RBC and plasma is increased significantly in both groups. No interaction effect (group X time point) was observed in any parameter. Values of LARatio did not show any significant differences. Conclusion: This study showed that the LA distribution in RBC and plasma after a high intensity running test is very similar in well trained endurance athletes and in untrained control subjects. Hence, LA uptake by RBC cannot or only in part be seen as a contributor to aerobic athletic performance.
Böning, D., Klarholz, C., Himmelsbach, B., Hütler, M., & Maassen, N. (2007). Causes of differences in exercise-induced changes of base excess and blood lactate. Eur J Appl Physiol, 99(2), 163–171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-006-0328-0
Broich, H., Sperlich, B., Buitrago, S., Mathes, S., & Mester, J. (2012). Performance assessment in elite football players: Field level test versus spiroergometry. J Hum Sport Exerc, 7(1), 287–295. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2012.71.07
Buono, M. J., & Yeager, J. E. (1986). Intraerythrocyte and plasma lactate concentrations during exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 55(3), 326–329. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02343807
Connes, P., Bouix, D., Py, G., Caillaud, C., Kippelen, P., Brun, J.-F., Varray, A., Prefaut, C. & Mercier, J. (2004). Does exercise-induced hypoxemia modify lactate influx into erythrocytes and hemorheological parameters in athletes? J Appl Physiol, 97(3), 1053–1058. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00993.2003
Daniel, S. S., Morishima, H. O., James, L. S., & Adamsons, K. (1964). Lactate and pyruvate gradients between red blood cells and plasma during acute asphyxia. J Appl Physiol, 19, 1100–1104. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1922.214.171.1240
Deuticke, B. (1982). Monocarboxylate transport in erythrocytes. J Membr Biol, 70(2), 89–103. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01870219
Deuticke, B. (1989). Monocarboxylate transport in red blood cells: kinetics and chemical modification. Methods Enzymol, 173, 300–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(89)73020-2
Devadatta, S. C. (1934). Distribution of lactate between the corpscles and the plasma in blood. Q J Exp Psychol, 24(3), 295–303.
Foxdal, P., Sjödin, A., Östman, B., & Sjödin, B. (1991). The effect of different blood sampling sites and analyses on the relationship between exercise intensity and 4.0 mmol ·1− blood lactate concentration: Blood lactate concentration. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 63(1), 52–54. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00760801
Foxdal, P., Sjödin, B., Rudstam, H., Ostman, C., Ostman, B., & Hedenstierna, G. C. (1990). Lactate concentration differences in plasma, whole blood, capillary finger blood and erythrocytes during submaximal graded exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 61(3-4), 218–222. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00357603
Gladden, L. B. (2000). Muscle as a consumer of lactate. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32(4), 764–771. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200004000-00008
Gmada, N., Bouhlel, E., Mrizak, I., Debabi, H., Ben Jabrallah, M., Tabka, Z., Feki, Y. & Amri, M. (2005). Effect of combined active recovery from supramaximal exercise on blood lactate disappearance in trained and untrained man. Int J Sports Med, 26(10), 874–879. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-837464
Goodwin, M. L., Harris, J. E., Hernández, A., & Gladden, L. B. (2007). Blood lactate measurements and analysis during exercise: a guide for clinicians. J Diabetes Sci Technol, 1(4), 558–569. https://doi.org/10.1177/193229680700100414
Hildebrand, A., Lormes, W., Emmert, J., Liu, Y., Lehmann, M., & Steinacker, J. M. (2000). Lactate concentration in plasma and red blood cells during incremental exercise. Int J Sports Med 21(7), 463–468. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-7412
Juel, C. (2001). Current aspects of lactate exchange: lactate/H+ transport in human skeletal muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol, 86(1), 12–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210100517
Juel, C., Lundby, C., Sander, M., Calbet, J. A. L., & van Hall, G. (2003). Human skeletal muscle and erythrocyte proteins involved in acid-base homeostasis: adaptations to chronic hypoxia. J Physiol, 548(Pt 2), 639–648.
Lindinger, M. I., McKelvie, R. S., & Heigenhauser, G. J. (1995). K+ and Lac- distribution in humans during and after high-intensity exercise: role in muscle fatigue attenuation? J Appl Physiol, 78(3), 765–777. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19126.96.36.1995
McKelvie, R. S., Lindinger, M. I., Heigenhauser, G. J., & Jones, N. L. (1991). Contribution of erythrocytes to the control of the electrolyte changes of exercise. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 69(7), 984–993. https://doi.org/10.1139/y91-148
Muñoz Perez, I., Moreno Perez, D., Cardona Gonzalez, C., & Esteve-Lanao, J. (2012). Prediction of race pace in long distance running from blood lactate concentration around race pace. J Hum Sport Exerc, 7(4), 763–769. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2012.74.04
Opitz, D., Lenzen, E., Opiolka, A., Redmann, M., Hellmich, M., Bloch, W., Brixius, K. & Brinkmann, C. (2015). Endurance training alters basal erythrocyte MCT-1 contents and affects the lactate distribution between plasma and red blood cells in T2DM men following maximal exercise. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 93(6), 413–419. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2014-0467
Sara, F., Hardy-Dessources, M.-D., Marlin, L., Connes, P., & Hue, O. (2006). Lactate distribution in the blood compartments of sickle cell trait carriers during incremental exercise and recovery. Int J Sports Med, 27(6), 436–443. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-865844
Skelton, M. S., Kremer, D. E., Smith, E. W., & Gladden, L. B. (1998). Lactate influx into red blood cells from trained and untrained human subjects. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 30(4), 536–542. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199804000-00011
Smith, E. W., Skelton, M. S., Kremer, D. E., Pascoe, D. D., & Gladden, L. B. (1997). Lactate distribution in the blood during progressive exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 29(5), 654–660. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199705000-00011
Stegmann, H., Kindermann, W., & Schnabel, A. (1981). Lactate kinetics and individual anaerobic threshold. Int J Sports Med, 2(3), 160–165. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1034604
Varlet-Marie, E., & Brun, J.-F. (2004). Reciprocal relationships between blood lactate and hemorheology in athletes: another hemorheologic paradox? Clin Hemorheol Microcirc, 30(3-4), 331–337.
Wahl, P., Zinner, C., Yue, Z., Bloch, W., & Mester, J. (2010). Warming-Up Affects Performance and Lactate Distribution between Plasma and Red Blood Cells. J Sports Sci Med, 9(3), 499-507.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.