Practice using performance goals enhances basketball free throw accuracy when tested under competition in elite players
The present study tested whether practice using a performance goal enhances accuracy when later tested under the demands of a competition outcome goal for a basketball free throw task. Thirty male elite-level basketball players with a mean age of 24.67 years practiced free throws either with or without a performance goal. The performance goal was constructed with the challenge of bettering an individualised accuracy level. Players were later tested under an outcome goal that emphasised performance in an external competitive situation. Performance was best in players that practiced using performance goals and greater gains were seen in players that showed an initial lower level of performance. Practice using performance goals may improve free throw accuracy in a game situation, particularly for players that are at a relatively lower skill level.
Ambrósio, N. F. A., Pacheco, M., M., Santos, F. G., Palhares, L. R., & Bruzi, A. T. (2015). The effect of specific goal setting on performance and goal adherence in experienced individuals in the basketball shot. Motricidade, 11, 85-93.
Borg, G. A. V. (1982). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 14, 377-381. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198205000-00012
Burton, D., & Weiss, C. (2008). The fundamental goal concept: the path to process and performance success. In T. S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (3rd ed.) (pp. 339-375). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Choi, D. H., Kim, S. M., Lee, J. W., Suh, S. H., So, W, Y. (2015). Winning factors: How players' positional offensive and defensive skills affect probability of victory in the Korea Basketball League. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 10, 453-459. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.10.2-3.453
Cox, R. H. (2007). Sport psychology: Concepts and applications (6th ed.). Columbia, MO: McGraw Hill.
Dandy, J., Brewer, N., & Tottman, R. (2001). Self consciousness and performance decrements within a sporting context. The Journal of Social Psychology, 141, 150-152. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224540109600540
Dimitrov, D. M., & Rumrill, P. D. (2003). Pretest-posttest designs and measurement of change. Work, 20, 159-165.
Emad, M., Neumann, D. L., & Abel, L. (2017). Attentional focus strategies used by regular exercisers and their relationship with perceived exertion, enjoyment, and satisfaction. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 12, 106-118. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2017.121.09
Gómez, M. A., Lorenzo, A., Jiménez, S., Navarro, R. M., & Sampaio, J. (2015). Examining choking in basketball: Effects of game outcome and situational variables during last 5 minutes and overtimes. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 120, 111-124. https://doi.org/10.2466/25.29.PMS.120v11x0
Gould, D. (2006). Goal setting for peak performance. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology (5th ed.) (pp. 240-259). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Gröpel, P. (2016). Self-focused attention and motor skill failure: The moderating role of action orientation. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 5, 206-217. https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000059
Hardy, L. & Parfitt, G. (1991). A catastrophe model of anxiety and performance. British Journal of Psychology, 82, 163-178. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1991.tb02391.x
Kingston, K., & Hardy, L. (1994). When are some goals more beneficial than others? Journal of Sport Sciences, 12, 198-199.
Kozar, B., Vaughn, R. E., Lord, R. H., & Whitfield, K. E. (1995). Basketball free-throw performance: Practice implications. Journal of Sport Behavior, 18, 123-129.
Kozar, B., Vaughn, R. E., Whitfield, K. E., Lord, R. H., & Dye, B. (1994). Importance of free throws at various stages of basketball games. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78, 243-248. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.52
Kyllo, B., & Landers, D. (1995). Goal setting in sport and exercise: a research synthesis to resolve the controversy. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17, 117-137. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.17.2.117
Lamirand, M., & Rainey, D. (1994). Mental imagery, relaxation, and accuracy of basketball foul shooting. Perceptual and Motor skills, 78, 1229-1230. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1994.78.3c.1229
Liao, C-M., & Masters, R. S. W. (2002) Self focused attention and performance failure under psychological stress. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 24, 289-305. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.24.3.289
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Locke, E. A., Shaw, K. N., Saan, L.M., & Latham, G. P. (1981). Goal setting and task performance: 1961-1980. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 125-152. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.90.1.125
Martens, R., Vealey, R. S., & Burton, D. (1990). Competitive anxiety in sport. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Books.
Moore, T. B., Yin, Z., Hanes, J., Duda, J., Gutin, B., & Barbeau, P. (2009). Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in children: Validation of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21, 116-129. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200802593612
Neumann, D. L., & Brown, J. (2013). The effect of attentional focus strategy on physiological and motor performance during a sit-up exercise. Journal of Psychophysiology, 27, 7-15. https://doi.org/10.1027/0269-8803/a000081
Neumann, D. L., & Heng, S. (2011). The effects of associative and dissociative attentional focus strategies on muscle activity and heart rate during a weight training exercise. Journal of Psychophysiology, 25, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1027/0269-8803/a000011
Neumann, D. L., & Piercy, A. (2013). The effect of different attentional strategies on physiological and psychological states during running. Australian Psychologist, 48, 329-328. https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12015
Neumann, D. L., & Thomas, P. R. (2011). Cardiac and respiratory activity and golf putting performance under attentional focus instructions. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 451-459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.02.002
Onestack, D. M. (1997). The effect of visuo-motor behaviour rehearsal (VMBR) and videotaped modelling (VM) on the free throw performance of intercollegiate athletes. Journal of Sport Behaviour, 20, 185-197.
Oudejans, R. R. D., & Pjipers, J. R. (2009). Training with anxiety has a positive effect on expert perceptual-motor performance under pressure. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 1631-1647. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470210802557702
Ryan, D., & Holt, L. E. (1989). Kinematic variables as predictors of performance in the basketball free-throw. The Basketball Bulletin, Summer, 60-63.
Vealey, R. S. (1990). Advancements in competitive anxiety research: Use of the Sport Competition Anxiety Test and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 2, 243-261. https://doi.org/10.1080/08917779008248732
Weinberg, R. S. (2013). Goal setting in sport and exercise: Research and practical applications. Revista da Educação Física / UEM, 24, 171-179. https://doi.org/10.4025/reveducfis.v24i2.17524
Wulf, G. & Lewthwaite, R. (2016). Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning. Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 23, 1382-1414. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-015-0999-9
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.