Analysis of speed strategies during World Orienteering Championships

Benedikt Andreas Gasser

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyse if better orienteers run more constant yielding to suggest the better the place, the more constant the pace. In principle, this premise is supported from a biological point of view of the aerobe-anaerobic threshold concept, which is well elucidated in long distance running and implies that a constant pace slightly below the threshold leads to maximal performance through regularly use of cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal system. To test this assumption race times of orienteers from the world championships at the Swedish Westcoast in Strömstad / Tanum were analysed concerning their steadiness of speed during the final course of middle and long  distance races. Interestingly statistical analyses mainly support the premise of relevance of steadiness in running. In woman, for long/middle distance a coefficient of determination between time and steadiness (calculated as standard deviation of all percentage deviations of individual split times and best time) of R2 = 0.254 respectively of R2 = 0.825 was detected. In men, for long/middle distance of R2 = 0.176 respectively of R2 = 0.472. Although, the method does not allow to strictly distinguish between cognitive and biological factors, it is implied that world class orienteers or more general orienteers get best results if running as constant as possible probably slightly below anaerobic threshold.


Keywords

World orienteering; Championships; Course times; Constant speed

References

Arnet F. Arithmetical route analysis with examples of the long final courses of the World Orienteering Championships 2003 in Switzerland and 2005 in Japan. Scientific Journal of orienteering, 2009; 17(1): 3-20.

Bird SR, Bailey R, Lewis J. Heart rates during competitive orienteering. Br J Sports Med, 1993;27(1):53-7. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.27.1.53

Borg G. Borg's perceived exertion and pain scales. Champaign: Human Kinetics. 1998.

Bortz J. Statistik für Human- und Sozialwissenschaftler (6. Aufl.) Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer. 2005.

Chalopin C. Physical and physiological characteristics of French orienteers. Scientific Journal of orienteering, 1994; (10): 58-62.

Cheshikhina VV. Relationship between running speed and cognitive processes in orienteering. Scientific Journal of orienteering, 1993; (9): 49-59.

Creagh U, Reilly T. Physiological and biomechanical aspects of orienteering. Sports Med, 1997; 24: 409-418. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199724060-00005

Eccles, D. W., & Arsal, G. (2015). How do they make it look so easy? The expert orienteer's cognitive advantage. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(6), 609–615. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.951953

Eccles DW, Walsh SE, Ingledew DK. Visual attention in orienteers at different levels of experience. J Sports Sci, 2006; 24: 77-87. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400022110

Eisenhut A, Zintl F. Ausdauertraining: Grundlagen, Methoden, Trainingssteuerung. (9. Aufl.) BLV GmbH Buchverlag & Co, München, 2009.

Galory Y, Tenenbaum G, Shiromy S. Cognitive behavioural strategies and anxiety in elite orienteers. J Sports Sci. 1986; 4: 39-48. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640418608732097

Guzman JF, Pablos AM, Pablos C. Perceptual-cognitive skills and performance in orienteering. Percept Mot Skills, 2008; 107: 159-164. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.107.1.159-164

Hébert-Losier K, Mourot L, Holmberg HC. Elite and amateur orienteers' running biomechanics on three surfaces at three speeds. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2015 ;47(2):381-9.

Held T, Müller I. Endurance capacity in orienteering – new field test versus laboratory test. Scientific Journal of orienteering, 1997; (13): 26–37.

Hoppeler H, Howald H, Conley K, Lindstedt SL, CLaassen H, Vock P, Weibel ER. Endurance training in humans: aerobic capacity and structure of skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol, 1985; 59(2): 320-7. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1985.59.2.320

Jensen K, Johansen L, Kärkkäinen OP. Economy in track runners and orienteers during path and terrain running. J Sports Sci, 1999; 17:945–950. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404199365335

Karppinen T, Laukkanen R. Heart rate analysis in orienteering training and competitions before and during WOC 1993. Scientific Journal of orienteering, 1994; (5): 10.

Lauenstein S, Wehrlin JP, Marti B. Differences in horizontal vs. uphill running performance in male and female Swiss world class orienteers. J Strength Cond Res, 2013; 27: 2952-2958. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31828bf2dc

Laukkanen R, Kaikkonen H, Karppinen T. Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Male Orienteers before, during and after intensing training camp. Scientific Journal of orienteering, 1998; (14): 13-22.

Peck G. Measuring heart rate as an indicator of physiological stress in relation to orienteering performance. Scientific Journal of orienteering, 1990; (6): 26–42.

Popper KR. Logik der Forschung. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. 1969.

Pribul RF, Price J. An Investigation into the Race strategies of Elite and Non-Elite Orienteers. Scientific Journal of orienteering, 2005; (16): 34-40.

Rolf C, Andersson G, Westblad P, Saltin B. Aerobic and anaerobic work capacities and leg muscle characteristics in elite orienteers. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 1997;7(1):20-4. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.1997.tb00112.x

Roos L, Taube W, Zuest P, Clénin G, Wyss T. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes. Biomed Res Int, 2015; 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/259531

Sachs L, Hedderich J. Statistik: Angewandte Statistik. 12. Auflage. Springer, Berlin/ Heidelberg. 2006.

Scherr J, Wolfarth B, Christle JW, Pressler A, Wagenpfeil S, Halle M. Associations between Borg's rating of perceived exertion and physiological measures of exercise intensity. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2013; 113(1): 147–155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-012-2421-x

Seiler R. Von Wegen und Umwegen. Dissertation. Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln. 1990.

Seiler, R. Cognitive processes in orienteering – a review. Scientific journal of orienteering, 1996; (12/2): 50-66.

Steffny H. Optimales Lauftraining. München: Südwestverlag; 2010.

Steffny H. Das grosse Laufbuch. München: Südwestverlag; 2008.

Tønnessen E, Svendsen IS, Rønnestad BR, Hisdal J, Haugen TA, Seiler S. The annual training periodization of 8 world champions in orienteering. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 2015; 10(1):29-38. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2014-0005

Wewege M, van den Berg R, Ward RE, Keech A. The effects of high-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training on body composition in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev, 2017; 11. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12532

Woc - World orienteering championships official homepage. Download from http://live.woc2016.se/blog/2016/08/25/maps-3/ 2.3.2017.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2018.132.01





License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/