Substrate oxidation in female adults during endurance exercise throughout menstrual cycle phases: IronFEMME pilot study
Keywords:Oxygen uptake, Female athletes, Oral contraceptives, Respiratory exchange ratio, Energy metabolism, Oestrogen, Progesterone
The main aim of the study was to investigate the effect of menstrual cycle phases on substrate oxidation during steady state intensity exercise in adult females with regular menstrual cycle and on oral contraceptive (OC). Twenty-four healthy endurance and strength trained females, with regular menstrual cycle phases (n= 15; Age 35.6±4.2; height 163.9±5.9 cm; body mass 58.1±5.2 kg; VO2peak 50.3±3.6 ml·min-1·kg-1) or on oral contraceptives (n=9; Age 30.4±4.5; height 163.9±9.0 cm; body mass 58.1±6.7 kg; VO2peak 52.4±4.2 ml·min-1·kg-1) participated in the study. All participants performed a graded maximal exercise test to determine their peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Participants then exercised at the speed corresponding to 75% of VO2peak for 40 minutes on a treadmill in each menstrual cycle phase: regular menstrual cycle group (early follicular phase, mid-follicular phase and luteal phase) and OC group (hormonal phase and non-hormonal phase). There were no differences in the respiratory exchange ratio of each phase, in regular menstrual cycle phase group (mean±SEM): early-follicular phase 0.89±0.01, mid-follicular phase 0.87±0.01 and luteal phase 0.88±0.01 (p>0.05). There were also no differences in respiratory exchange ratio for the participants using oral contraceptive: hormonal phase 0.89±0.01 and non-hormonal phase 0.91±0.01 (p>0.05). However, we found that OC may influence fat oxidation (p=0.018) during the hormonal phase. Our preliminary results suggest that menstrual cycle and oral contraceptive do not influence substrate oxidation in females with regular menstrual cycle phases. Regarding the few disparities, more research is needed to understand how sexual hormones influence substrate oxidation in female.
FundingThe IronFEMME Study is funded by the Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad, Convocatoria de Ayudas I D 2016, Programa Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2013-2016 (Grant code DEP2016-75387-P)
Batterham, A. M., & Hopkins, W. G. (2006). Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 1(1), 50–57. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.1.1.50
Beals, K. A. (2013). Nutrition and the Female Athlete: From Research to Practice. CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/b13743
Burrows, M., & Bird, S. (2000). The physiology of the highly trained female endurance runner. Sports Medicine, 30(4), 281–300. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200030040-00004
Comitato, R., Saba, A., Turrini, A., Arganini, C., & Virgili, F. (2015). Sex hormones and macronutrient metabolism. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55(2), 227–241. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2011.651177
Constantini, N. W., Dubnov, G., & Lebrun, C. M. (2005). The menstrual cycle and sport performance. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 24(2), e51–e82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csm.2005.01.003
D'Eon, T., & Braun, B. (2002). The roles of estrogen and progesterone in regulating carbohydrate and fat utilization at rest and during exercise. Journal of Women's Health & Gender-Based Medicine, 11(3), 225–237. https://doi.org/10.1089/152460902753668439
Dawson, E. A., & Reilly, T. (2009). Menstrual cycle, exercise and health. Biological Rhythm Research, 40(1), 99–119. https://doi.org/10.1080/09291010802067213
De Crée, C. (1998). Sex steroid metabolism and menstrual irregularities in the exercising female. Sports Medicine, 25(6), 369–406. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199825060-00003
Devries, M. C. (2016). Sex‐based differences in endurance exercise muscle metabolism: impact on exercise and nutritional strategies to optimize health and performance in women. Experimental Physiology, 101(2), 243-249. https://doi.org/10.1113/EP085369
Devries, M. C., Hamadeh, M. J., Phillips, S. M., & Tarnopolsky, M. A. (2006). Menstrual cycle phase and sex influence muscle glycogen utilization and glucose turnover during moderate-intensity endurance exercise. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 291(4), R1120–R1128. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00700.2005
Egan, B., & Zierath, J. R. (2013). Exercise metabolism and the molecular regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation. Cell Metabolism, 17(2), 162–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2012.12.012
Hopkins, W. G. (2006). Spreadsheets for analysis of controlled trials with adjustment for a predictor. Sportscience, 10, 46–50.
Isacco, L., Duché, P., & Boisseau, N. (2012). Influence of hormonal status on substrate utilization at rest and during exercise in the female population. Sports Medicine, 42(4), 327–342. https://doi.org/10.2165/11598900-000000000-00000
Knechtle, B., Müller, G., Willmann, F., Kotteck, K., Eser, P., & Knecht, H. (2004). Fat oxidation in men and women endurance athletes in running and cycling. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 25(1), 38–44. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2003-45232
Kraemer, R. R., Francois, M., & Castracane, V. D. (2012). Estrogen mediation of hormone responses to exercise. Metabolism, 61(10), 1337–1346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2012.03.009
Kraemer, R. R., Francois, M., Webb, N. D., Worley, J. R., Rogers, S. N., Norman, R. L., Castracane, V. D. (2013). No effect of menstrual cycle phase on glucose and glucoregulatory endocrine responses to prolonged exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 113(9), 2401–2408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-013-2677-9
Lebrun, C. M., Joyce, S. M., & Constantini, N. W. (2013). Effects of female reproductive hormones on sports performance. In Endocrinology of Physical Activity and Sport (pp. 281-322). Humana Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-314-5_16
Leung, K.-C., Johannsson, G., Leong, G. M., & Ho, K. K. Y. (2004). Estrogen regulation of growth hormone action. Endocrine Reviews, 25(5), 693–721. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2003-0035
Oosthuyse, T., & Bosch, A. N. (2010). The effect of the menstrual cycle on exercise metabolism. Sports Medicine, 40(3), 207–227. https://doi.org/10.2165/11317090-000000000-00000
Oosthuyse, T., Bosch, A. N., & Jackson, S. (2005). Cycling time trial performance during different phases of the menstrual cycle. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(3), 268–276. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-005-1324-5
Rapoport, B. I. (2010). Metabolic factors limiting performance in marathon runners. PLoS Computational Biology, 6(10), e1000960. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000960
Spriet, L. L. (2014). New insights into the interaction of carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise. Sports Medicine, 44(1), 87–96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0154-1
Suh, S.-H., Casazza, G. A., Horning, M. A., Miller, B. F., & Brooks, G. A. (2003). Effects of oral contraceptives on glucose flux and substrate oxidation rates during rest and exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(1), 285–294. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00693.2002
Tara, M. D., Sharoff, C., Chipkin, S. R., Grow, D., Ruby, B. C., & Braun, B. (2002). Regulation of exercise carbohydrate metabolism by estrogen and progesterone in women. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 283(5), E1046–E1055. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00271.2002
Vaiksaar, S., Juerimaee, J., Maeestu, J., Purge, P., Kalytka, S., Shakhlina, L., & Juerimaee, T. (2011). Phase of oral contraceptive cycle and endurance capacity of rowers. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 113(3), 764–772. https://doi.org/10.2466/05.06.PMS.113.6.764-772
Vaiksaar, S., Jürimäe, J., Mäestu, J., Purge, P., Kalytka, S., Shakhlina, L., & Jürimäe, T. (2011). No effect of menstrual cycle phase on fuel oxidation during exercise in rowers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(6), 1027–1034. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1730-1
Zderic, T. W., Coggan, A. R., & Ruby, B. C. (2001). Glucose kinetics and substrate oxidation during exercise in the follicular and luteal phases. Journal of Applied Physiology, 90(2), 447–453. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2001.90.2.447
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.