Accuracy of single beam timing lights for determining velocities in a flying 20-m sprint: Does timing light height matter?
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of timing lights (TL) at different heights for measuring velocities during sprinting. Methods: Two sets of single beam TL were used to determine velocities reached in a flying 20-m sprint in 15 healthy and physically active male participants. In TL64, all TL were set up at a height of 64 cm, and in TL100, all TL were set up at 100 cm, respectively. Participants performed three valid trials. The recordings of high-speed video cameras were used as a reference. Results: ICC and Pearson’s r values between both timing light heights and the reference system were almost perfect (0.969–0.991). Bland & Altman’s LOA (95 %) indicated low systematic and unsystematic errors, with somewhat smaller LOA for TL100 (-0.013–0.121 m/s) than for TL64 (-0.060–0.120 m/s). Measures of between-trial reliability of running velocities showed a high relative (ICC) and absolute (RMSE) reliability, with the reference system showing slightly better values in all reliability measures (ICC=0.935; RMSE<0.001 m/s) compared to TL64 and TL100 (ICC=0.894, 0.887; RMSE=0.107 m/s, 0.124 m/s, respectively). The usefulness, determined by comparing the typical error (TE) with the smallest worthwhile change (SWC), was considered as “OK” (TE ≈ SWC) for all three systems. Conclusions: Results suggest that TL at both heights (TL64 and TL100) can be considered as accurate, reliable, and useful in computing velocities during a flying 20-m sprint, and therefore can be recommended to both coaches and researchers.
Al Haddad, H., Simpson, B. M., & Buchheit, M. (2015). Monitoring changes in jump and sprint performance: Best or average values? International journal of sports physiology and performance, 10(7), 931–934. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2014-0540
Altmann, S., Hoffmann, M., Kurz, G., Neumann, R., Woll, A., & Haertel, S. (2015). Different Starting Distances Affect 5-m Sprint Times. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 29(8), 2361–2366. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000865
Altmann, S., Spielmann, M., Engel, F. A., Neumann, R., Ringhof, S., Oriwol, D., & Haertel, S. (2017). Validity of Single-Beam Timing Lights at Different Heights. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 31(7), 1994–1999. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001889
Atkinson, G., & Nevill, A. M. (1998). Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 26(4), 217–238. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199826040-00002
Berthoin, S., Dupont, G., Mary, P., & Gerbeaux, M. (2001). Predicting sprint kinematic parameters from anaerobic field tests in physical education students. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 15(1), 75–80.
Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1999). Measuring agreement in method comparison studies. Statistical methods in medical research, 8(2), 135–160. https://doi.org/10.1177/096228029900800204
Bond, C. W., Willaert, E. M., & Noonan, B. C. (2017). Comparison of Three Timing Systems: Reliability and Best Practice Recommendations in Timing Short-Duration Sprints. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 31(4), 1062–1071. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001566
Castellano, J., Casamichana, D., Calleja-González, J., Román, J. S., & Ostojic, S. M. (2011). Reliability and Accuracy of 10 Hz GPS Devices for Short-Distance Exercise. Journal of sports science & medicine, 10(1), 233–234.
Cronin, J. B., & Templeton, R. L. (2008). Timing light height affects sprint times. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 22(1), 318–320. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31815fa3d3
Darrall-Jones, J. D., Jones, B., Roe, G., & Till, K. (2016). Reliability and Usefulness of Linear Sprint Testing in Adolescent Rugby Union and League Players. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 30(5), 1359–1364. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001233
Darrall-Jones, J. D., Jones, B., & Till, K. (2016). Anthropometric, Sprint, and High-Intensity Running Profiles of English Academy Rugby Union Players by Position. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 30(5), 1348–1358. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001234
Djaoui, L., Chamari, K., Owen, A. L., & Dellal, A. (2017). Maximal Sprinting Speed of Elite Soccer Players During Training and Matches. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 31(6), 1509–1517. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001642
Düking, P., Born, D.-P., & Sperlich, B. (2016). The SpeedCourt: Reliability, Usefulness, and Validity of a New Method to Determine Change-of-Direction Speed. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 11(1), 130–134. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0174
Ferro, A., Floría, P., Villacieros, J., & Aguado-Gómez, R. (2012). Validez y fiabilidad del sensor láser del sistema BioLaserSport® para el análisis de la velocidad de la carrera. [Validity and reliability of the laser sensor of BioLaserSport® system for the analysis of the running velocity]. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte, 8, 357–370. https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2012.03005
Haugen, T., & Buchheit, M. (2016). Sprint Running Performance Monitoring: Methodological and Practical Considerations. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 46(5), 641–656. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0446-0
Haugen, T. A., Tønnessen, E., Svendsen, I. S., & Seiler, S. (2014). Sprint time differences between single- and dual-beam timing systems. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 28(8), 2376–2379. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000415
Hopkins W G. (2004). How to interpret changes in an athletic performance test. Sport sci. (8), 1–7.
Lockie, R. G., Schultz, A. B., Callaghan, S. J., Jeffriess, M. D., & Berry, S. P. (2013). Reliability and Validity of a New Test of Change-of-Direction Speed for Field-Based Sports: The Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT). Journal of sports science & medicine, 12(1), 88–96.
McFarland, I., Dawes, J., Elder, C., & Lockie, R. (2016). Relationship of Two Vertical Jumping Tests to Sprint and Change of Direction Speed among Male and Female Collegiate Soccer Players. Sports, 4(1), 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports4010011
Morin, J.-B., Jeannin, T., Chevallier, B., & Belli, A. (2006). Spring-mass model characteristics during sprint running: Correlation with performance and fatigue-induced changes. International journal of sports medicine, 27(2), 158–165. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-837569
Portas, M. D., Rush, C. J., Barnes, C. A., & Batterham, A. M. (2007). Method comparison of linear distance and velocity measurements with global positioning satellite (GPS) and the timing gate techniques. J Sports Sci Med. (6, (Suppl 10)).
Roe, G., Darrall-Jones, J., Black, C., Shaw, W., Till, K., & Jones, B. (2017). Validity of 10-HZ GPS and Timing Gates for Assessing Maximum Velocity in Professional Rugby Union Players. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 12(6), 836–839. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0256
Rumpf, M. C., Lockie, R. G., Cronin, J. B., & Jalilvand, F. (2016). Effect of Different Sprint Training Methods on Sprint Performance Over Various Distances: A Brief Review. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 30(6), 1767–1785. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001245
Samozino, P., Rabita, G., Dorel, S., Slawinski, J., Peyrot, N., Saez de Villarreal, E., & Morin, J.-B. (2016). A simple method for measuring power, force, velocity properties, and mechanical effectiveness in sprint running. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 26(6), 648–658. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12490
Sawczuk, T., Jones, B., Scantlebury, S., Weakley, J., Read, D., Costello, N.,. . . Till, K. (2017). Between-Day Reliability and Usefulness of a Fitness Testing Battery in Youth Sport Athletes: Reference Data for Practitioners. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 53, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367X.2017.1360304
Shalfawi, S. A., Enoksen, E., Tønnessen, E., & Ingebrigtsen, J. (2012). Assessing test-retest reliability of the portable Brower speed trap II testing system. Kineziologija. (44), 24–30.
Waldron, M., Worsfold, P., Twist, C., & Lamb, K. (2011). Concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of a global positioning system (GPS) and timing gates to assess sprint performance variables. Journal of sports sciences, 29(15), 1613–1619. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.608703
Wong, M. A., Dobbs, I. J., Watkins, C. M., Barillas, S. R., Lin, A., Archer, D. C.,. . . Brown, L. E. (2017). Sled Towing Acutely Decreases Acceleration Sprint Time. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 31(11), 3046–3051. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002123
World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. (2013). JAMA, 310(20), 2191–2194. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.281053
Yeadon, M. R., Kato, T., & Kerwin, D. G. (1999). Measuring running speed using photocells. Journal of sports sciences, 17(3), 249–257. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404199366154
License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/