Coupling angle variability of upper extremity during 5 weeks overarm throwing self-practice

Gizem Ozkaya, Jungho Lee, Sejin Kong, Ki-Kwang Lee

Abstract

The role of variability is still unknown for biomechanists whether it's useful or not for the performance or skill learning. The aim of this study was to investigate coupling angle variability (CAV) at the early phase of skill acquisition of overarm throwing without any feedback about the result or performance. 7 healthy female without any throwing experience participated in this study. Each participant participated a total of 15 sessions in the laboratory (3 days in a week x 5 weeks). Coupling angle variability of angle-angle diagrams (AAD) calculated for combinations of trunk flexion (TF) –lateral flexion(TL), humeral elevation (HE)- humeral plane of elevation (HP), elbow flexion-extension(EF). There were no significant changes for CAV, however individual AADs showed different patterns for each individual. For understanding the role of the variability in skill learning or performance, individual variability analysis may give information better than the group means.

Keywords

Coordination; Variability; Overarm throwing

References

Ball, K., & Best, R. (2012). Centre of pressure patterns in the golf swing: individual-based analysis. Sport Biomech, 11(2), 175–189. http://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2012.673007

Bartlett, R., Wheat, J., & Robins, M. (2007). Is movement variability important for sports biomechanists? Sport Biomech, 6(2), 224–243. http://doi.org/10.1080/14763140701322994

Bradshaw, E. J., Keogh, J., Hume, P., Maulder, P., Nortje, J., & Marnewick, M. (2009). The effect of biological movement variability on the performance of the golf swing in high- and low- handicapped players. Res Q Exercise Sport, 80(2), 185–196. http://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1997.10608013

Button, C., MacLeod, M., Sanders, R., & Coleman, S. (2003). Examining movement variability in the basketball free-throw action at different skill levels. Res Q Exercise Sport, 74(3), 257–269. http://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2003.10609090

Carson, H. J., Collins, D., & Richards, J. (2013). Intra-individual movement variability during skill transitions: A useful marker? Eur J Sport Sci, 14(July), 37–41. http://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2013.814714

Chu, Y., Fleisig, G. S., Simpson, K. J., & Andrews, J. R. (2009). Biomechanical comparison between elite female and male baseball pitchers. J Appl Biomech, 25(1), 22–31. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.25.1.22

Cortes, N., Onate, J., & Morrison, S. (2014). Differential effects of fatigue on movement variability. Gait Posture, 39(3), 888–93. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.11.020

Cunningham, T. J. (2012). The Clinical Usefulness of Vector Coding Variability in Female Runners With and Without Patellofemoral Pain. University of Kentucky.

Davids, K., Bennett, S., & Newell, K. (Eds.). (2006). Movement System Variability. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Doorenbosch, C. A. M., Harlaar, J., & Veeger, D. H. E. J. (2003). The globe system: an unambiguous description of shoulder positions in daily life movements. J Rehabil Res Dev, 40(2), 147–155. http://doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2003.03.0149

Escamilla, R. F., Fleisig, G. S., Barrentine, S. W., Zheng, N., & Andrews, J. R. (1998). Kinematic comparisons of throwing different types of baseball pitches. J Appl Biomech, 14(1), 1–23. http://doi.org/10.1123/jab.14.1.1

Escamillia, R., Barentinne, S., Fieisig, G., Naiquan, Z., Takada, Y., Kingsiey, D., & Andrews, J. (2007). Pitching biomechanics as a pitchers approaches muscular fatigue during a simulated baseball game. Am J Sport Med, 35(1), P. 22-33. http://doi.org/10.1177/0363546506293025

Fleisig, G. S., Barrentine, S. W., Zheng, N., Escamilla, R. F., & Andrews, J. R. (1999). Kinematic and kinetic comparison of baseball pitching among various levels of development. J Biomech, 32(12), 1371–1375. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(99)00127-X

Fleisig, G. S., Chu, Y., Weber, A., & Andrews, J. (2009). Variability in baseball pitching biomechanics among various levels of competition. Sport Biomech, 8(1), 10–21. http://doi.org/10.1080/14763140802629958

Fleisig, G. S., & Escamilla, R. E. (1996). Biomechanics of the Elbow in the Throwing Athlete. Oper Techn Sport Med, 4(2), 62–68. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-1872(96)80050-5

Galna, B., Lord, S., & Rochester, L. (2013). Is gait variability reliable in older adults and Parkinson's disease? Towards an optimal testing protocol. Gait Posture, 37(4), 580–585. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.09.025

Gates, D. H., Walters, L. S., Cowley, J., Wilken, J. M., & Resnik, L. (2016). Range of motion requirements for upper-limb activities of daily living. Am J Occup Ther, 70(1), 7001350010p1-7001350010p10. http://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2016.015487

Glazier, P. S., & Wheat, J. S. (2014). An integrated approach to the biomechanics and motor control of cricket fast bowling techniques. Sports Med, 44(1), 25–36. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0098-x

Gribbin, T. C., Slater, L. V., Herb, C. C., Hart, J. M., Chapman, R. M., Hertel, J., & Kuenze, C. M. (2016). Differences in hip-knee joint coupling during gait after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Clin Biomech, 32, 64–71. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2016.01.006

Heiderscheit, B. C., Hamill, J., & Van Emmerik, R. E. A. (2002). Variability of stride characteristics and joint coordination among individuals with unilateral patellofemoral pain. J Appl Biomech, 18(2), 110–121. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.18.2.110

Horan, S. A., Evans, K., & Kavanagh, J. J. (2011). Movement variability in the golf swing of male and female skilled golfers. Med Sci Sport Exer, 43(8), 1474–1483. http://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318210fe03

James, C. R. (2004). Considerations of Movement Variability in Biomechanics Research. In P. Stergiou (Ed.), Innovative Analyses of Human Movement (pp. 29–62). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Latash, M. L., & Zatsiorsky, V. M. (2016). Biomechanics and Motor Control: Defining Central Comcepts. London: Academic Press.

Magill, R. A., & Anderson, D. (2014). Motor learning and control: Concepts and applications (10th editi). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Oyama, S., Yu, B., Blackburn, J. T., Padua, D. A., Li, L., & Myers, J. B. (2014). Improper trunk rotation sequence is associated with increased maximal shoulder external rotation angle and shoulder joint force in high school baseball pitchers. Am J Sport Med, 42(9), 2089–94. http://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514536871

Seroyer, S. T., Nho, S. J., Bach, B. R., Bush-Joseph, C. A., Nicholson, G. P., & Romeo, A. A. (2010). The kinetic chain in overhand pitching: its potential role for performance enhancement and injury prevention. Sports Health, 2(2), 135–46. http://doi.org/10.1177/1941738110362656

Sparrow, W. A., Donovan, E., van Emmerik, R., & Barry, E. B. (1987). Using relative motion plots to measure changes in intra-limb and inter-limb coordination. J Motor Behav, 19(1), 115–29. http://doi.org/10.1080/00222895.1987.10735403

Sparto, P., & Schor, R. (2004). Directional Statistics. In P. Stergiou (Ed.), Innovative Analyses of Human Movement (pp. 121–161). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Taylor, P. G., Lee, K.-Y., Landeo, R., O'Meara, D. M., & Millett, E. (2015). Determining optimal trial size using sequential analysis. J Sport Sci, 33(3), 300–308. http://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.942679

Urbin, M. A., Stodden, D., & Fleisig, G. (2013). Overarm Throwing Variability as a Function of Trunk Action. J Mot Learn Dev, 1, 89–95. https://doi.org/10.1123/jmld.1.4.89

van Emmerik, R. E. A., Ducharme, S. W., Amado, A. C., & Hamill, J. (2016). Comparing dynamical systems concepts and techniques for biomechanical analysis. J Sport Health Sci, 5(1), 3–13. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2016.01.013

Van Emmerik, R. E. A., Miller, R. H., & Hamill, J. (2014). Dynamical systems analysis of coordination. In 2nd Edition (Ed.), Research Methods in Biomechanics (pp. 291–315). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Vereijken, B., Emmerik, R. E. A. van, Whiting, H. T. A., & Newell, K. M. (1992). Free(z)ing degrees of freedom in skill acquisition. J Motor Behav, 24(1), 133–142. http://doi.org/10.1080/00222895.1992.9941608

Vereijken, B., Whiting, H., & Beek, W. (1992). A Dynamical Systems Approach to Skill Acquisition. Q J Exp Psychol A, 45(2), 323–344. http://doi.org/10.1080/14640749208401329

Wagner, H., Pfusterschmied, J., Klous, M., von Duvillard, S. P., & Müller, E. (2012). Movement variability and skill level of various throwing techniques. Hum Mov Sci, 31(1), 78–90. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2011.05.005

Werner, S. L., Suri, M., Guido, J. A., Meister, K., & Jones, D. G. (2008). Relationships between ball velocity and throwing mechanics in collegiate baseball pitchers. J Shoulder Elbow Surg, 17(6), 905–908. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2008.04.002

Wheat, J. S., & Glazier, P. S. (2006). Measuring Coordination and Variability in Coordination. In K. Davids, S. Bennet, & K. Newell (Eds.), Movement System Variability (pp. 167–181). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Whiteside, D., Elliott, B. C., Lay, B., & Reid, M. (2015). Coordination and variability in the elite female tennis serve. J Sports Sci, 33(7), 675–686. http://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.962569

Wilk, K., Meister, K., Fleisig, G., & Andrews, J. R. (2000). Biomechanics of the overhead throwing motion. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev, 8(2), 124–134. http://doi.org/10.1097/00132585-200008020-00002

Wilson, C., Simpson, S. E., van Emmerik, R. E. A., & Hamill, J. (2008). Coordination variability and skill development in expert triple jumpers. Sport Biomech, 7(1), 2–9. http://doi.org/10.1080/14763140701682983




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2018.134.15





License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/