The effect of spatial working memory capacity on ball flight perception
Batting in baseball or softball represents a physically and perceptually challenging task. Changes in flight of a high-speed pitched ball require quick and accurate predictions of future location. To be successful, an individual must be able to rapidly gather and process visual information, suggesting an emphasis on spatial working memory. The current experiment assessed if individuals of variant expertise levels (novices and varsity softball players) differed in ability to determine future locations of a pitched ball based on different pitch types and durations. Data suggest an impressive base capability for visual motion prediction including a time appropriate ability to predict motion timing. Additionally, while not central to this capability, data suggest a relevance for spatial working memory in predicting speed. These results demonstrate a need to further investigate a base ability in motion prediction as well as the impact of working memory in high performance skills.
Awh, E., & Jonides, J. (2001). Overlapping mechanisms of attention and spatial working memory. Trends in cognitive sciences, 5(3), 119-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01593-X
Baddeley, A. D. (2002). Is working memory still working?. European psychologist, 7(2), 85. https://doi.org/10.1027//1016-9040.7.2.85
Bahill, A. T., & LaRitz, T. (1984). Why can't batters keep their eyes on the ball? American Scientist, 72, 249-253.
Beilock, S. L., Jellison, W. A., Rydell, R. J., McConnell, A. R., & Carr, T. H. (2006). On the causal mechanisms of stereotype threat: Can skills that don't rely heavily on working memory still be threatened?. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(8), 1059-1071. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167206288489
Blacker, K. J., Curby, K. M., Klobusicky, E., & Chein, J. M. (2014). Effects of action video game training on visual working memory.
Causer, J., Smeeton, N. J., & Williams, A. M. (2017). Expertise differences in anticipatory judgements during a temporally and spatially occluded task. PloS one, 12(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0171330
Chen, Y. H., Lee, P. H., Lu, Y. W., Huang, S. K., & Yen, N. S. (2016). Contributions of Perceptual and Motor Experience of an Observed Action to Anticipating Its Result.
Cowan, N. (2008). What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?. Progress in brain research, 169, 323-338. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9
de Fockert, J. W., Rees, G., Frith, C. D., & Lavie, N. (2001). The role of working memory in visual selective attention. Science, 291(5509), 1803-1806. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1056496
DeLucia, P. R., & Liddell, G. W. (1998). Cognitive motion extrapolation and cognitive clocking in prediction motion tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24(3), 901. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1522.214.171.1241
Engle, R. W. (2002). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current directions in psychological science, 11(1), 19-23. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00160
Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A.-G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1149-1160. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.41.4.1149
Furley, P. A., & Memmert, D. (2010). The role of working memory in sport. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 3(2), 171-194. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2010.526238
Furley, P., & Wood, G. (2016). Working Memory, Attentional Control, and Expertise in Sports: A Review of Current Literature and Directions for Future Research. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 5(4), 415-425. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2016.05.001
Gray, R. (2002). Behavior of college baseball players in a virtual batting task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28, 1131-1148. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-15126.96.36.1991
Gray, R. (2010). Expert baseball batters have greater sensitivity in making swing decisions. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81, 373-378. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2010.10599685
Gray, R., & Regan, D. M. (2006). Unconfounding the direction of motion in depth, time to passage, and rotation rate of an approaching object. Vision Research, 46, 2388-2402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2006.02.005
Heitz, R. P., & Engle, R. W. (2007). Focusing the Spotlight: Individual Differences in Visual Attention Control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 217-240. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-34188.8.131.52
Higuchi, T., Nagami, T., Nakata, H., Watanabe, M., Isaka, T., & Kanosue, K. (2016). Contribution of visual information about ball trajectory to baseball hitting accuracy. PloS one, 11(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148498
Inquisit 2 [Computer software]. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.millisecond.com
Kamp, J. V. D., Rivas, F., Doorn, H. V., & Savelsbergh, G. (2008). Ventral and dorsal system contributions to visual anticipation in fast ball sports. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 39, 100-130.
Kyllonen, P. C., & Chaiken, S. (2003). Dynamic spatial ability and psychomotor performance. International Journal of Testing, 3(3), 233-249. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327574IJT0303_3
Law, D. J., Pellegrino, J. W., Mitchell, S. R., Fischer, S. C., McDonald, T. P., & Hunt, E. B. (1993). Perceptual and cognitive factors governing performance in comparative arrival-time judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19(6), 1183. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-15184.108.40.2063
Lee, D. N. (1976). A theory of visual control of braking based on information about time-to-collision. Perception, 5(4), 437-459. https://doi.org/10.1068/p050437
Luck, S. J., & Vogel, E. K. (1997). The capacity of visual working memory for features and conjunctions. Nature, 390(6657), 279. https://doi.org/10.1038/36846
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Rettinger, D. A., Shah, P., & Hegarty, M. (2001). How are visuospatial working memory, executive functioning, and spatial abilities related? A latent-variable analysis. Journal of experimental psychology: General, 130(4), 621. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-34220.127.116.111
Müller, S., Fadde, P. J., & Harbaugh, A. G. (2016). Adaptability of expert visual anticipation in baseball batting. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1-9.
Nakamoto, H., & Mori, S. (2012). Experts in fast-ball sports reduce anticipation timing cost by developing inhibitory control. Brain and Cognition, 80, 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2012.04.004
Paull, G., & Glencross, D. (1997). Expert perception and decision making in baseball. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 28, 35-56.
Ranganathan, R., & Carlton, L. G. (2007). Perception-action coupling and anticipatory performance in baseball batting. Journal of Motor Behavior, 39, 369-380. https://doi.org/10.3200/JMBR.39.5.369-380
Regan, D. M. (1997). Visual factors in hitting and catching. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15, 533-558. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404197366985
Schwarz, A. (2007, Feb 25). New Baseball Statistic, With a Nod to an Old Standard. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/25/sports/baseball/25score.html
Stanislaw, H., & Todorov, N. (1999). Calculation of signal detection theory measures. Behavior research methods, instruments, & computers, 31(1), 137-149. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03207704
Szymanski, J. M., Lowe, H. E., Szymanski, D. J., Cicciarella, C. F., Lowe, D. W., Gillian, S. T., & Spaniol, F. J. (2011). Effect of visual training on batting performance and pitch recognition of division I softball players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25, S49-S50. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.JSC.0000395655.29164.90
Theriault, M., De Beaumont, L., Tremblay, S., Lassonde, M., & Jolicoeur, P. (2011). Cumulative effects of concussions in athletes revealed by electrophysiological abnormalities on visual working memory. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(1), 30-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803391003772873
Uchida, Y., Kudoh, D., Higuchi, T., Honda, M., & Kanosue, K. (2013). Dynamic visual acuity in baseball players is due to superior tracking abilities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45, 319-325. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31826fec97
License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/