A single bout of whole-body vibration improves hamstring flexibility in university athletes: A randomized controlled trial
Hamstring muscle injuries are one of most frequent injuries in team sports. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has an important effect on flexibility that could prevent shortening of the hamstrings. To investigate both acute and residual effect of a single bout of WBV on hamstring flexibility in a group of university athletes from team sports. 70 athletes (81% men, age 21 ± 1.9 years old) were separated into three groups; control group (CG; n=24), hamstring flexibility group without vibration (-V; n=23), and hamstring flexibility group with vibration (+V; n=23). Both -V and +V groups performed the same experimental protocol, composed of 6 sets of 30 seconds of passive hamstring flexibility over a vibration platform with both legs alternately (full-length 6 minutes; 3 minutes per leg). A high-magnitude vibration loading was applied only in +V group (40 Hz and 4 mm). Hamstring flexibility was evaluated through the Modified Sit and Reach (MSR) and Passive Straight Leg Raise (PSLR) test before (baseline), immediately after (acute effect), and after 72 h (residual effect) intervention. Both experimental groups showed a significant improvement in flexibility compared to CG in all measures (p<0.05). No statistical differences were found between +V and –V, however, MSR, right PSLR, and left PSLR residual effect size (Cohen's d) were greater in +V. In conclusion, adding a WBV stimulus to flexibility training improves acute and residual hamstring flexibility in university athletes from team sports.
Aminian-Far, A., Hadian, M.-R., Olyaei, G., Talebian, S., & Bakhtiary, A. H. (2011). Whole-body vibration and the prevention and treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness. Journal of Athletic Training, 46, 43–49. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-46.1.43
Ayala, F., Sainz de Baranda, P., Cejudo, A., & Santonja, F. (2012). Pruebas angulares de estimación de la flexibilidad isquiosural: análisis de la fiabilidad y validez. Revista Andaluza de Medicina Del Deporte, 5, 67–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1888-7546(12)70011-4
Ayala, F., Sainz de Baranda, P., Cejudo, A., & Santonja, F. (2013). Pruebas angulares de estimación de la flexibilidad isquiosural: descripción de los procedimientos exploratorios y valores de referencia. Revista Andaluza de Medicina Del Deporte, 6, 120–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1888-7546(13)70046-7
Ayala, F., Sainz de Baranda, P., De Ste Croix, M., & Santonja, F. (2013). Comparison of active stretching technique in males with normal and limited hamstring flexibility. Physical Therapy in Sport: Official Journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine, 14, 98–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2012.03.013
Brukner, P. (2015). Hamstring injuries: prevention and treatment-an update. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49, 1241–1244. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-094427
Cardinale, M., & Lim, J. (2003). Electromyography activity of vastus lateralis muscle during whole-body vibrations of different frequencies. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 17, 621–624.
Cochrane, D. J., & Stannard, S. R. (2005). Acute whole body vibration training increases vertical jump and flexibility performance in elite female field hockey players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 860–865. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.019950
Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155
Cristi, C., Collado, P. S., Márquez, S., Garatachea, N., & Cuevas, M. J. (2014). Whole-body vibration training increases physical fitness measures without alteration of inflammatory markers in older adults. European Journal of Sport Science, 14, 611–619. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2013.858370
Cronin, J., Nash, M., & Whatman, C. (2008). The acute effects of hamstring stretching and vibration on dynamic knee joint range of motion and jump performance. Physical Therapy in Sport: Official Journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine, 9, 89–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2008.01.003
Cross, K. M., Saliba, S. A., Conaway, M., Gurka, K. K., & Hertel, J. (2015). Days to Return to Participation After a Hamstrings Strain Among American Collegiate Soccer Players. Journal of Athletic Training, 50, 733–741. https://doi.org/10.4085/1052-6050-50.2.12
Dastmenash, S., Tillaar, R. V. D., Jacobs, P., Shafiee, G. H., & Shojaedin, S. S. (2010). The Effect of Whole Body Vibration, Pnf Training or a Combination of Both on Hamstrings Range of Motion. World Applied Sciences Journal, 11, 744–751.
Despina, T., George, D., George, T., Sotiris, P., Alessandra, D. C., George, K., Stavros, K. (2014). Short-term effect of whole-body vibration training on balance, flexibility and lower limb explosive strength in elite rhythmic gymnasts. Human Movement Science, 33, 149–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2013.07.023
Di Giminiani, R., Manno, R., Scrimaglio, R., Sementilli, G., & Tihanyi, J. (2010). Effects of individualized whole-body vibration on muscle flexibility and mechanical power. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 50, 139–151.
Draper, D. O., Anderson, C., Schulthies, S. S., & Ricard, M. D. (1998). Immediate and residual changes in dorsiflexion range of motion using an ultrasound heat and stretch routine. Journal of Athletic Training, 33, 141–144.
Edouard, P., Branco, P., & Alonso, J.-M. (2016). Muscle injury is the principal injury type and hamstring muscle injury is the first injury diagnosis during top-level international athletics championships between 2007 and 2015. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50, 619–630. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095559
Fagnani, F., Giombini, A., Di Cesare, A., Pigozzi, F., & Di Salvo, V. (2006). The effects of a whole-body vibration program on muscle performance and flexibility in female athletes. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists, 85, 956–962. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.phm.0000247652.94486.92
Feland, J. B., Hawks, M., Hopkins, J. T., Hunter, I., Johnson, A. W., & Eggett, D. L. (2010). Whole body vibration as an adjunct to static stretching. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 31, 584–589. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1254084
Fousekis, K., Tsepis, E., Poulmedis, P., Athanasopoulos, S., & Vagenas, G. (2011). Intrinsic risk factors of non-contact quadriceps and hamstring strains in soccer: a prospective study of 100 professional players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45, 709–714. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2010.077560
Ghazalian, F., Hakemi, L., Pourkazemi, L., Akhoond, M., & Ahmadi, M. (2014). Effects of different amplitudes of whole body vibration training on performance. Sport Sciences for Health, 10, 35–40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-014-0170-4
Henderson, G., Barnes, C. A., & Portas, M. D. (2010). Factors associated with increased propensity for hamstring injury in English Premier League soccer players. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport / Sports Medicine Australia, 13, 397–402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2009.08.003
Hortobágyi, T., Lesinski, M., Fernandez-Del-Olmo, M., & Granacher, U. (2015). Small and inconsistent effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115, 1605–1625. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-015-3194-9
Jacobs, P. L., & Burns, P. (2009). Acute enhancement of lower-extremity dynamic strength and flexibility with whole-body vibration. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 23, 51–57. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181839f19
Kiiski, J., Heinonen, A., Järvinen, T. L., Kannus, P., & Sievänen, H. (2008). Transmission of vertical whole body vibration to the human body. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 23, 1318–1325. https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.080315
Maloney, S. J., Turner, A. N., & Fletcher, I. M. (2014). Ballistic exercise as a pre-activation stimulus: a review of the literature and practical applications. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 44, 1347–1359. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0214-6
Marshall, L. C., & Wyon, M. A. (2012). The effect of whole-body vibration on jump height and active range of movement in female dancers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 26, 789–793. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822a5ce8
Miñarro, P. A. L., García, P. L. R., Lucas, J. L. Y., Cárceles, F. A., & Fiol, C. F. (2008). Validez de la posición del raquis lumbo-sacro en flexión como criterio de extensibilidad isquiosural en deportistas jóvenes. Archivos de Medicina Del Deporte.
Osawa, Y., & Oguma, Y. (2013). Effects of vibration on flexibility: a meta-analysis. Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions, 13, 442–453.
Rauch, F., Sievanen, H., Boonen, S., Cardinale, M., Degens, H., Felsenberg, D., International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions. (2010). Reporting whole-body vibration intervention studies: recommendations of the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions. Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions, 10, 193–198.
Schulz, K. F., Altman, D. G., Moher, D., & CONSORT Group. (2011). CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. International Journal of Surgery (London, England), 9, 672–677. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2011.09.004
Spernoga, S. G., Uhl, T. L., Arnold, B. L., & Gansneder, B. M. (2001). Duration of Maintained Hamstring Flexibility After a One-Time, Modified Hold-Relax Stretching Protocol. Journal of Athletic Training, 36, 44–48.
Tsuji, T., Kitano, N., Tsunoda, K., Himori, E., Okura, T., & Tanaka, K. (2014). Short-term effects of whole-body vibration on functional mobility and flexibility in healthy, older adults: a randomized crossover study. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy (2001), 37, 58–64.
van Beijsterveldt, A. M. C., van de Port, I. G. L., Vereijken, A. J., & Backx, F. J. G. (2013). Risk factors for hamstring injuries in male soccer players: a systematic review of prospective studies. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23, 253–262. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2012.01487.x
van den Tillaar, R. (2006). Will whole-body vibration training help increase the range of motion of the hamstrings? Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 20, 192–196.
Witvrouw, E., Danneels, L., Asselman, P., D'Have, T., & Cambier, D. (2003). Muscle flexibility as a risk factor for developing muscle injuries in male professional soccer players. A prospective study. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 31, 41–46. https://doi.org/10.1177/03635465030310011801
License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/