Connection between performance and body sway/morphology in juvenile Olympic shooters
Keywords:Pistol, Rifle, Balance, Weight, Height, Competition
The objective of the study was to examine, via use of a simple specific test, the correlation between body sway and performance in Juvenile Olympic shooters, to compare the differences in body morphology between different shooting modalities and to know if the anthropometric profile of a shooter influences performance. 38 national level juvenile shooters (24 pistol and 14 rifle) who competed at a pistol and air rifle Young Promises Spanish Championship participated in the study. Body sway (measured in terms of movements of the Centre of Pressure (COP): maximum displacements, maximum and minimum average velocities, rotation angles and total areas) and anthropometric data (age, height and weight) were recorded under competition conditions during shooting simulations. Performance was measured in terms of average points per shot. The variables of stress and experience before competition were also considered. The study was observational and descriptive following a cross-sectional design. The results showed that, in the juvenile category, rifle shooters perform better than pistol shooters, but pistol shooters have less body sway. Performance was found to be statistically related to COP displacements, only in pistol shooters. Body weight was found to be related to body sway but not with performance. Body height was found to be related neither with body sway, nor with performance No anthropometric differences have been found to exist between the different modalities (pistol and rifle).
FundingThe present study was supported by the Faculty of Physical Activity and Sports Science (Madrid, Spain) and the University of Armed Forces ESPE (Quito, Ecuador).
Aalto, H., Pyykko, I., Ilmarinen, R., Kahkonen, E., & Starck, J. (1990). Postural stability in shooters. ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec., 52(4), 232-238. https://doi.org/10.1159/000276141
Aalto, H., Pyykkö, I., Ilmarinen, R., Kähkönen, E., & Starck, J. (1990). Postural stability in shooters. ORL, 52(4), 232-238. https://doi.org/10.1159/000276141
Ball, K. A., Best, R. J., & Wrigley, T. V. (2003a). Body sway, aim point fluctuation and performance in rifle shooters: inter- and intra-individual analysis. J Sports Sci, 21(7), 559-566. https://doi.org/10.1080/0264041031000101881
Ball, K. A., Best, R. J., & Wrigley, T. V. (2003b). Inter- and intra-individual analysis in elite sport: Pistol shooting. J Appl Biomech, 19(1), 28-38. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.19.1.28
Bayios, I., Bergeles, N., Apostolidis, N., Noutsos, K., & Koskolou, M. (2006). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype differences of Greek elite female basketball, volleyball and handball players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 46(2), 271-280.
Belinchon, F. (2010). Estudio médico deportivo de las modalidades de tiro olímpico. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid.
Era, P., Konttinen, N., Mehto, P., Saarela, P., & Lyytinen, H. (1996). Postural stability and skilled performance--a study on top-level and naive rifle shooters. J Biomech, 29(3), 301-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(95)00066-6
Goldschmied, N., & Kowalczyk, J. (2016). Gender Performance in the NCAA Rifle Championships: Where is the Gap? Sex Roles, 74(7-8), 310-322. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-014-0436-y
Gulbinskienė, V., & Skarbalius, A. (2009). Peculiarities of investigated characteristics of lithuanian pistol and rifle shooters´ training and sport performance. Ugdymas Kuno Kultura, 21.
Hawkins, R. (2011). Identifying mechanic measures that best predict air-pistol shooting performance. Int J Perf Anal Spor, 11(3), 499-509. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2011.11868568
Hawkins, R. (2013). Effects of stance angle on postural stability and performance with national-standard air pistol competitors. Eur J Sport Sc, 13(5), 483-489. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2012.755569
Hawkins, R., & Sefton, J. (2011). Effects of stance width on performance and postural stability in national-standard pistol shooters. J Sports Sci, 29(13), 1381-1387. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.593039
Hegeman, J., Shapkova, E. Y., Honegger, F., & Allum, J. H. J. (2007). Effect of age and height on trunk sway during stance and gait. J Vestib Res, 17(2), 75-87.
Hue, O., Simoneau, M., Marcotte, J., Berrigan, F., Doré, J., Marceau, P., . . . Teasdale, N. (2007). Body weight is a strong predictor of postural stability. Gait Posture, 26(1), 32-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.07.005
Ihalainen, S., Kuitunen, S., Mononen, K., & Linnamo, V. (2016). Determinants of elite‐level air rifle shooting performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 26(3), 266-274. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12440
Ihalainen, S., Mononen, K., Linnamo, V., & Kuitunen, S. (2017). Which technical factors explain competition performance in air rifle shooting? Int J Sports Sci Coa, 78-85.
King, A. C., Challis, J. H., Bartok, C., Costigan, F. A., & Newell, K. M. (2011). Obesity, mechanical and strength relationships to postural control in adolescence. Gait Posture.
Mason, B., Cowan, L., & Gonczol, T. (1990). Factors affecting accuracy in pistol shooting. Excel, 6, 2-6.
Mon, D. (2016). Estudio de las variables de equilibrio, fuerza y antropometría determinantes del rendimiento en tiro olímpico en la modalidad de pistola aire., Universidad Politécnica, Madrid.
Mon, D., Zakynthinaki, M. S., Cordente, C. A., Barriopedro, M. I., & Sampedro, J. (2014). Body sway and performance at competition in male pistol and rifle Olympic shooters. Bio Hum Kinetics, 6, 56-62. https://doi.org/10.2478/bhk-2014-0010
Mon, D., Zakynthinaki, M. S., Cordente, C. A., Barriopedro, M. I., & Sampedro, J. (2016). Prevalidación de un test de equilibrio en tiro olímpico sin armas. Rev Int Med Cienc Ac, 64, 775-787.
Mon, D., Zakynthinaki, M. S., Cordente, C. A., Monroy Antón, A., & López Jiménez, D. (2014). Validation of a Dumbbell Body Sway Test in Olympic Air Pistol Shooting. PLoS ONE, 9(4), e96106. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096106
Mononen, K., Konttinen, N., Viitasalo, J., & Era, P. (2007). Relationships between postural balance, rifle stability and shooting accuracy among novice rifle shooters. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 17(2), 180-185.
Mononen, K., Viitasalo, J. T., Era, P., & Konttinen, N. (2003). Optoelectronic measures in the analysis of running target shooting. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 13(3), 200-207. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0838.2003.00130.x
Pellegrini, B., & Schena, F. (2005). Characterization of arm-gun movement during air pistol aiming phase. J Sport Med Phys Fit, 45(4), 467-475.
Reinkemeier, H., Buhlmann, G., Eckhardt, M., Kulla, C., & Linn, U. (2006). Air rifle shooting: fitness - technique - 3-positions - supported - movement sequences - rifles - aiming paths - exercises - psyche - training - coaches (B. Murray, Trans.). Dortmund: Verl. MEC.
Reinkemeier, H., Bühlmann, G., & Konietzny, A. (2006). Tiro olímpico con pistola: Técnica · Entrenamiento · Táctica · Preparación Psicológica · Armas: MEC High Tech Shooting Equipment.
RFEDETO. (2014). Reglamento Técnico General para todas las Modalidades de Tiro. Madrid: Real Federación Española de Tiro Olímpico.
Su, F. C., Wu, W. L., & Lee, W. D. (2000). Stance Stability in Shooters. J Med Biol Eng, 20(4), 187-192.
Tang, W. T., Zhang, W. Y., Huang, C. C., Young, M. S., & Hwang, I. S. (2008). Postural tremor and control of the upper limb in air pistol shooters. J Sport Sci, 26(14), 1579-1587. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410802287063
Viitasalo, J., Era, P., Konttinen, N., Mononen, K., Mononen, H., Norvapalo, K., & Rintakoski, E. (1999). The posture steadiness of running target shooters of different skill levels. Kinesiology, 31, 11.
Zanevskyy, I., Korostylova, Y., & Mykhaylov, V. (2010). Shot Moment in Optoelectronic Training in the Air-Pistol Shooting. Int J Perform Anal Sport.
Zatsiorsky, V., & Aktov, A. (1990). Biomechanics of highly precise movements: the aiming process in air rifle shooting. J Biomech, 23, 35-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(90)90039-6
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.