Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Point-scoring plays related to level of set win and in-game role during volleyball rules testing

Mladen Stankovic, Guillermo Ruiz-Llamas, Dušan Perić, Miriam E. Quiroga-Escudero



The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of point-scoring plays related to level of set win and in-game role under experimental rules tested at the U23 Men’s Volleyball World Championship in Uberlandia, Brazil (21-point set, 15 seconds between points) from the 16th point in the first four sets and the 10th point in the fifth set. The analysis of 1335 points from 123 sets in 36 matches played by 144 males (average age 21.1±1.4 years) focused on in-game role (setter, outside hitter, middle blocker, opposite, libero), final score, finishing point actions (serve-ace, three attack types, three counter attack types, block), set outcome (Win-Lose), and level of set win (Walkover-Balanced-Tough). Pearson’s Chi-Square test was used for data analysis. The results showed that the difference in the structure of won and lost points decreased from walkover to balanced to tough sets. Attack-spike and block were the most frequently executed technical elements. Outside-hitter was identified as the in-game role that finished more points, followed by Opposite and Middle blockers. If the tested rules are applied, developing the block, serve and attacks may have greater influence on set outcome in the future.


Scoring system; Set result; Final action


Anguera, M. T., & Hernández-Mendo, A. (2013). Observational methodology in sport sciences. Revista de Ciencias del Deporte, 9(3), 135-160.

Asterios, P., Kostantinos, C., Athanasios, M., & Dimitrios, K. (2009). Comparison of technical skills effectiveness of men's national volleyball teams. Int J Perf Anal Spor, 9(1), 1–7.

Claver Rabaz, F., Jiménez Castuera, R., Gil Arias, A., Moreno Domínguez, A., & Moreno Arroyo, M. (2013). Relationship between performance in game actions and the match result. A study in volleyball training stages. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 8(3proc), S651-S659.

Dávila-Romero, C., & García-Hermoso, A. (2012). Acciones finales discriminantes de voleibol en categorías de formación masculina: importancia del saque en los partidos igualados [Discriminatory volleyball final actions in male formative stages: importance of serve in equal matches]. RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte, 8(8), 151–160.

Drikos, S., Kountouris, P., Laios, A., & Laios, Y. (2009). Correlates of team performance in volleyball. Int J Perf Anal Spor, 9(2), 149–156.

Escalante, Y., Saavedra, J. M., Mansilla, M., & Tella, V. (2011). Discriminatory power of water polo game-related statistics at the 2008 Olympic Games. J Sport Sci, 29(3), 291–298.

FIVB. (n.d.-a). "FIVB – Structure and Organisation." Hyperlink: []. Retrieved on 10 December 2014.

FIVB. (n.d.-b). "FIVB History." Hyperlink: []. Retrieved on 10 December 2014.

FIVB. (2012). "Official volleyball rules 2015-2016." Hyperlink: []. Retrieved on 10 January 2014.

FIVB. (2013a). "Twenty-one point rule to be tested at U23 World Championships." News. Hyperlink: []. Retrieved on 5 January 2014.

FIVB. (2013b). "Competition formula." []. Retrieved on 5 January 2014.

Fleiss, J. L., Levin, B. A., & Paik, M. C. (2003). Statistical methods for rates and proportions (3rded.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Gravetter, F. J., & Wallnau, L. B. (2004). Statistics for the behavioral sciences (6thed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Grgantov, Z., Katić, R., & Janković, V. (2006). Morphological characteristics, technical and situation efficacy of young female volleyball players. Collegium Antropol, 30(1), 87–96.

Gruić, I., Vuleta, D., & Milanović, D. (2006). Performance indicators of teams at the 2003 Men's World Handball Championship in Portugal. Kinesiology, 38(2), 164–175.

Häyrinen, M., Hoivala, T., & Blomqvist, M. (2004). Proceedings Book. In P. O'Donoghue & M. Hughes (Eds.), Differences between winning and losing teams in men's European top-level volleyball (pp. 491–496). Proceedings of VI Conference Performance Analysis of Sport, Belfast, Northern Ireland, 22-25 June 2004. Cardiff (Wales): University of Wales Institute Cardiff.

Hughes, M., & James, N. (2008). Kinesiology research trends and applications – Proceedings Book. In F. Prot (Ed.), Notational analysis of soccer (pp. 644-660). Proceedings of the 5th International Scientific Conference on Kinesiology, Zagreb, Croatia, 10-14 September 2008. Zagreb (Croatia): Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb.

Hughes, M., & Franks, I. M. (2004). Notational analysis of sport: Systems for better coaching and performance in sport (2nded.). London (England): Routledge.

Joao, P. V., Silva, M., Lacerda, D., & Vaz, L. (2012). Book of abstracts. In R. Meeusen, J. Duchateau, B. Roelands, M. Klass, B. De Geus, S. Baudry, & E. Tsolakidis (Eds.), The scoring skills which discriminate result, according set number in World Championship volleyball 2010 (pp. 149–150). Proceedings of the 17th annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Bruges, Belgium, 4-7 July 2012. Bruges (Belgium): European College of Sport Science.

Lago, C. (2009). The influence of match location, quality of opposition, and match status on possession strategies in professional association football. J Sport Sci, 27(13), 1463-1469.

Marcelino, R., & Mesquita, I. (2006). Book of proceedings. In H. Dancs, M. Hughes, & P. O'Donoghue (Eds.), Characterizing the efficacy of skills in high performance competitive volleyball (pp. 491–496). Proceedings of the World Congress of Performance Analysis of Sport VII Szombathely, Hungary, 23-26 August 2006. Szombathely (Hungary): Daniel Berzsenyi College.

Marcelino, R., Mesquita, I., & Afonso, J. (2008). The weight of terminal actions in volleyball. Contributions of the spike, serve and block for the teams' rankings in the World League 2005. Int J Perf Anal Spor, 8(2), 1–7.

Marcelino, R., Mesquita, I., & Sampaio, J. (2010). Estudo dos indicadores de rendimento em voleibol em função do resultado do set [Study of performance indicators in male volleyball according to the set results]. Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte, 24(1), 69-78.

Marcelino, R., Mesquita, I., & Sampaio, J. (2011). Effects of quality of opposition and match status on technical and tactical performances in elite volleyball. J Sport Sci, 29(7), 733–741.

Marelić, N., Rešetar, T., & Janković, V. (2004). Discriminant analysis of the sets won and the sets lost by one team in A1 Italian volleyball league - A case study. Kinesiology, 36(1), 75–82.

Marelić, N., Rešetar, T., Zadražnik, M., & Đurković, T. (2005). Science and Profession - Challenge for the Future - proceedings book. In D. Milanović & F. Prot (Eds.), Modeling of situation parameters in top level volleyball (pp. 459–462). Proceedings of the 4th International Scientific Conference on Kinesiology, Opatija, Croatia, 7-11 September 2005. Zagreb (Croatia): Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb.

Monteiro, R., Mesquita, I., & Marcelino, R. (2009). Relationship between the set outcome and the dig and attack efficacy in elite male volleyball game. Int J Perf Anal Spor, 9(3), 294–305.

Moreno, A., Moreno, M. P., Julián, J. A., & Del Villar, F. (2005). Estudio de la relación entre la eficacia de las acciones de primer contacto y la eficacia del ataque en voleibol masculino de alto nivel [Study of the relation between the efficiency of first contact plays and the efficiency of the attack in elite men's volleyball]. Revista Universitaria de la Educación Física y el Deporte KRONOS, IIII, 57–61.

O'donoghue, P., & Ingram, B. (2001). A notational analysis of elite tennis strategy. J Sport Sci, 19(2), 107-115.

Palao, J. A., Santos, J. A., & Ureña, A. (2004). Effect of team level on skill performance in volleyball. Int J Perf Anal Spor, 4(2); 50–60.

Palao, J. M., Manzanares, P., & Ortega, E. (2015). Design, validation, and reliability of an observation instrument for technical and tactical actions in indoor volleyball. European Journal of Human Movements, 34, 75–95.

Patsiaouras, A., Moustakidis, A., Charitonidis, K., & Kokaridas, D. (2011). Technical skills leading in winning or losing volleyball matches during Beijing Olympic Games. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 11(2), 149–152.

Rodríguez-Ruiz, D., Quiroga, M. E., Miralles, J. A., Sarmiento, S., De Saá, Y., & García-Manso, J. M. (2011). Study of the technical and tactical variables determining set win or loss in top-level European men's volleyball. Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, 7(1), 1–13.

Sampaio, J., Godoy, S. I., & Feu, S. (2004). Discriminative power of basketball game-related statistics by level of competition and sex. Percept Motor Skill, 99(3 suppl), 1231–1238.

Sánchez-Moreno, J., Marcelino, R., Mesquita, I., & Ureña, A. (2015). Analysis of the rally length as a critical incident of the game in elite male volleyball. Int J Perf Anal Spor, 15(2), 620-631.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (5thed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education.

Ureña, A., Gallardo, C., Delgado, J., Hernández, E., & Calvo, R. (2000). Estudio sobre la evolución de las reglas de juego en voleibol [Study of the history of volleyball rules of the game]. Habilidad Motriz: Revista de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte, 16, 32–39.

Yiannis, L., & Panagiotis, K. (2005). Evolution in men's volleyball skills and tactics as evidenced in the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. Int J Perf Anal Spor, 5(2), 1–8.

Zetou, E., Tsigilis, N., Moustakidis, A., & Komninakidou, A. (2006). Playing characteristics of men's Olympic Volleyball teams in complex II. Int J Perf Anal Spor, 6(1), 172-177.


Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.