The effects of daily physical activity on functional fitness, isokinetic strength and body composition in elderly community-dwelling women
Keywords:Daily physical activity, Functional fitness, Isokinetic strength, Body composition
Physical inactivity has been classified as a public health problem. The excess fat with muscle loss along with the general decline of physical and functional capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contribution of objectively estimated daily physical activity (PA) in functional fitness, isokinetic strength and body composition in community-dwelling elderly women. Sixty elderly female volunteered for this research, with 67.69 ± 5.30 years old. Daily PA was assessed using accelerometers for 7 days. The evaluation and quantification of body composition, total lean body mass, fat mass, total body fat mass and bone mineral density, were made with the DXA equipment. Body Mass Index (BMI) was also calculated. The functional fitness (FF) assessment was performed using Functional Fitness Test. The knee extensor and flexor isokinetic strength was evaluated in both lower limbs, using a dynamometer at two different angular velocities: 60°/sec. and 180°/sec. Body Composition, Bone Mineral Density (p = 0.014) and Fat Mass (p = 0.029) were statistically lowers in the 3rd tertile compared to the 2nd one. The knee flexion peak torque at 180°/sec on the dominant leg (p = 0.051) and non-dominant leg (p = 0.020) was statistically different between the less active group and the most active group. For the FF, no significant differences between groups were found. Our results suggest that daily PA seems to induce benefits on BMI and % Fat Mass as well as on isokinetic knee flexion strength of independent and community dwelling-resident’s older women.
ACSM. (2009). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 41(3), 687-708. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181915670
Afghani, A., & Johnson, C. A. (2006). Resting blood pressure and bone mineral content are inversely related in overweight and obese Hispanic women. Am J Hypertens, 19(3), 286-292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjhyper.2005.10.024
Bauman, A., Phongsavan, P., Schoeppe, S., & Owen, N. (2006). Physical activity measurement-a primer for health promotion. Promot Educ, 13(2), 92-103. https://doi.org/10.1177/10253823060130020103
Bemben, M. G. (1998). Age-related alterations in muscular endurance. Sports Med, 25(4), 259-269. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199825040-00004
Carvalho, J., Marques, E., & Mota, J. (2009). Training and detraining effects on functional fitness after a multicomponent training in older women. Gerontology, 55(1), 41-48. https://doi.org/10.1159/000140681
Carvalho, J., Marques, E., Soares, J. M., & Mota, J. (2010). Isokinetic strength benefits after 24 weeks of multicomponent exercise training and a combined exercise training in older adults. Aging Clin Exp Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03324817
Carvalho, J., Mota, J., & Soares, J. M. (2003). Strength training vs. aerobic training: cardiovascular tolerance in elderly adults. Rev Port Cardiol, 22(11), 1315-1330.
Cooper, C., Cawley, M., Bhalla, A., Egger, P., Ring, F., Morton, L., & Barker, D. (1995). Childhood growth, physical activity, and peak bone mass in women. J Bone Miner Res, 10(6), 940-947. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.5650100615
Copeland, J. L., & Esliger, D. W. (2009). Accelerometer assessment of physical activity in active, healthy older adults. J Aging Phys Act, 17(1), 17-30. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.17.1.17
Daley, M. J., & Spinks, W. L. (2000). Exercise, mobility and aging. Sports Med, 29(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200029010-00001
Freedson, P. S., Melanson, E., & Sirard, J. (1998). Calibration of the Computer Science and Applications, Inc. accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 30(5), 777-781. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199805000-00021
Haskell, W. L., Lee, I. M., Pate, R. R., Powell, K. E., Blair, S. N., Franklin, B. A., . . . Bauman, A. (2007). Physical Activity and Public Health: Updated Recommendation for Adults From the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. ACSM/AHA Circulation, 116(9), 1081-1093. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.185649
Heiat, A., Vaccarino, V., & Krumholz, H. M. (2001). An evidence-based assessment of federal guidelines for overweight and obesity as they apply to elderly persons. Arch Intern Med, 161(9), 1194-1203. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.161.9.1194
Kohrt, W. M. (1995). Body composition by DXA: tried and true? Med Sci Sports Exerc, 27(10), 1349-1353. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199510000-00001
Kyle, U. G., Genton, L., Hans, D., Karsegard, V. L., Michel, J. P., Slosman, D. O., & Pichard, C. (2001). Total body mass, fat mass, fat-free mass, and skeletal muscle in older people: cross-sectional differences in 60-year-old persons. J Am Geriatr Soc, 49(12), 1633-1640. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2001.49272.x
Leitzmann, M. F., Park, Y., Blair, A., Ballard-Barbash, R., Mouw, T., Hollenbeck, A. R., & Schatzkin, A. (2007). Physical activity recommendations and decreased risk of mortality. Arch Intern Med, 167(22), 2453-2460. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.167.22.2453
Lohne-Seiler, H., Torstveit, M. K., & Anderssen, S. A. (2013). Traditional versus functional strength training: effects on muscle strength and power in the elderly. J Aging Phys Act, 21(1), 51-70. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.21.1.51
Maggi, S., Noale, M., Gallina, P., Bianchi, D., Marzari, C., Limongi, F., & Crepaldi, G. (2006). Metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in an elderly Caucasian cohort: the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 61(5), 505-510. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/61.5.505
Malliou, P., Fatouros, I., Beneka, A., Gioftsidou, A., Zissi, V., Godolias, G., & Fotinakis, P. (2003). Different training programs for improving muscular performance in healthy inactive elderly. Isokinet Exerc Sci, 11(4), 189-195.
McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2004). Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition and human performance. 5. ed. Baltimore: Lippincot Williams & Wilkins, 162, 202, 235.
McAuley, E., Morris, K. S., Doerksen, S. E., Motl, R. W., Liang, H., White, S. M., . . . Rosengren, K. (2007). Effects of change in physical activity on physical function limitations in older women: mediating roles of physical function performance and self-efficacy. J Am Geriatr Soc, 55(12), 1967-1973. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01469.x
McFadyen, B. J., & Winter, D. A. (1988). An integrated biomechanical analysis of normal stair ascent and descent. J Biomech, 21(9), 733-744. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(88)90282-5
Millington, P. J., Myklebust, B. M., & Shambes, G. M. (1992). Biomechanical analysis of the sit-to-stand motion in elderly persons. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 73(7), 609-617. doi:0003-9993(92)90124-F [pii]
Pedersen, B. K., & Saltin, B. (2006). Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 16 Suppl 1, 3-63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2006.00520.x
Portegijs, E., Sipila, S., Pajala, S., Lamb, S. E., Alen, M., Kaprio, J., . . . Rantanen, T. (2006). Asymmetrical lower extremity power deficit as a risk factor for injurious falls in healthy older women. J Am Geriatr Soc, 54(3), 551-553. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2006.00643_6.x
Rikli, R. E., & Jones, C. J. (1999). Development and validation of a functional fitness test for community-residing older adults. J Aging Phys Act, 7(2), 129-161. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.7.2.129
Rydwik, E., Lammes, E., Frandin, K., & Akner, G. (2008). Effects of a physical and nutritional intervention program for frail elderly people over age 75. A randomized controlled pilot treatment trial. Aging Clin Exp Res, 20(2), 159-170. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03324763
Shephard, R. J. (2003). Limits to the measurement of habitual physical activity by questionnaires. Br J Sports Med, 37(3), 197-206; discussion 206. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.37.3.197
Shumway-Cook, A., Brauer, S., & Woollacott, M. (2000). Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults using the Timed Up & Go Test. Phys Ther, 80(9), 896-903.
Sihvonen, S. E., Sipila, S., & Era, P. A. (2004). Changes in postural balance in frail elderly women during a 4-week visual feedback training: a randomized controlled trial. Gerontology, 50(2), 87-95. https://doi.org/10.1159/000075559
Singh, M. A. (2002). Exercise comes of age: rationale and recommendations for a geriatric exercise prescription. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 57(5), M262-282. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/57.5.M262
Sternfeld, B., Bhat, A. K., Wang, H., Sharp, T., & Quesenberry, C. P., Jr. (2005). Menopause, physical activity, and body composition/fat distribution in midlife women. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 37(7), 1195-1202. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000170083.41186.b1
Stewart, K. J. (2005). Physical activity and aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1055, 193-206. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1323.029
Takeshima, N., Rogers, N. L., Rogers, M. E., Islam, M. M., Koizumi, D., & Lee, S. (2007). Functional fitness gain varies in older adults depending on exercise mode. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39(11), 2036-2043. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31814844b7
Visser, M., Simonsick, E. M., Colbert, L. H., Brach, J., Rubin, S. M., Kritchevsky, S. B., . . . Harris, T. B. (2005). Type and intensity of activity and risk of mobility limitation: the mediating role of muscle parameters. J Am Geriatr Soc, 53(5), 762-770. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53257.x
Vogel, T., Brechat, P. H., Lepretre, P. M., Kaltenbach, G., Berthel, M., & Lonsdorfer, J. (2009). Health benefits of physical activity in older patients: a review. Int J Clin Pract, 63(2), 303-320. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01957.x
Westhoff, M., Stemmerik, L., & Boshuizen, H. (2000). Effects of a low-intensity strength training program on knee-extensor strength and functional ability of frail older people. JAPA(8), 325-342.
WHO. (2006). World Health Organisation "BMI Classifications" http://www.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.htm
Wilk, K. (1991). Isokinetic Testing – Setup and Positioning. In Biodex System II Manual, Applications/Operations Biodex Medical System, Inc, New York, USA.
Zamboni, M., Mazzali, G., Zoico, E., Harris, T. B., Meigs, J. B., Di Francesco, V., . . . Bosello, O. (2005). Health consequences of obesity in the elderly: a review of four unresolved questions. Int J Obes (Lond), 29(9), 1011-1029. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803005
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.