Physiological and affective responses of 30s‒30s intermittent small-sided game in elite handball players: A new alternative to intermittent running
Objectives: To compare physiological and affective demands of a novel small-sided game designed in intermittent (30s‒30s) regimen opposing 3-a-side field players with 30s‒30s shuttle running and handball match play. Methods: Fourteen elite male handball players (age 23.8 ± 4.4 y; body mass 84.0 ± 7.4 kg; height 188 ± 0.06 m) performed 2 periods of 10-min of each experimental exercise in separate occasions. Physiological demand was assessed using mean heart rate, time spent in heart rate intensity zones and post-exercise blood lactate concentration. The difference between ‘perceived exertion’ and ‘pleasure’ determined the affective balance. Results: Small-sided game and shuttle running drills showed similar mean heart rate (88.8 ±2.4 and 90.4 ±2.8 % of peak heart rate, respectively) and time spent in heart rate zones. The match play elicited lower mean heart rate (86.9 ± 3.4 % of peak heart rate, P ≤ 0.05, large ES) than small-sided game and shuttle running. Peak lactate for small-sided game (6.6 ±2.6 mmol/L) was lower than shuttle running (10 ±2.2 mmol/L, P ≤ 0.05, large ES) whereas no significant difference was observed with match play. The small-sided game showed lower affective balance than shuttle running (P ≤ 0.01, large ES). Conclusions: Coaches can be confident in prescribing the small-sided game as a suitable alternative to shuttle running to provide consistent aerobic stimulus with lower affective balance. The small-sided game may be considered as a specific training method in achieving relevant physiological adaptations for handball match play.
Baron, B., Guilloux, B., Begue, M., & Uriac, S. (2015). Emotional responses during repeated sprint intervals performed on level, downhill and uphill surfaces. J Sports Sci, 33, 476‒486. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.947523
Bogdanis, GC., Ziagos, V., Anastasiadis, M., & Maridaki, M. (2007). Effects of two different short-term training programs on the physical and technical abilities of adolescent basketball players. J Sci Med Sport, 10, 79‒88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2006.05.007
Borg, G., Ljunggren, G., & Ceci, R. (1985). The increase of perceived exertion, aches and pain in the legs, heart rate and blood lactate during exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Phys, 54, 343‒349. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02337176
Buchheit, M. (2008). The 30-15 intermittent fitness test: accuracy for individualizing interval training of young intermittent sport players. J Strength Cond Res, 22, 365‒374. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181635b2e
Buchheit, M., Laursen, PB., Kuhnle, J., Ruch, D., Renaud, C., & Ahmaidi, S. (2009). Game-based training in young elite handball players. Int J Sports Med, 30, 251‒258. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1105943
Castagna, C., Impellizzeri, FM., Chaouachi, A., Ben Abdelkrim, N., & Manzi, V. (2011). Physiological responses to ball-drills in regional level male basketball players. J Sports Sci, 29, 1329–1336. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.597418
Chelly, MS., Hermassi, S., Aouadi, R., Khalifa, R., Van Den Tillaar, R., Chamari, K., & Shepard, R. (2011). Match analysis of elite adolescent team handball players. J Strength Cond Res, 25, 2410‒2417. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182030e43
Conte, D., Favero, T., Niederhausen, M., Capranica, L., & Tessitore, A. (2016). Effect of different number of players and training regimes on physiological and technical demands in ball-drills in basketball. J Sports Sci, 34, 780‒786. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1069384
Delextrat, A., & Martinez, A. (2014). Small-sided game training improves aerobic capacity and technical skills in basketball players. Int J Sports Med, 35, 385‒391.
Dellal, A., Chamari, K., Pintus, A., Girard, O., Cotte, T., & Keller, D. (2008). Heart rate responses during small-sided games and short intermittent running training in elite soccer players: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res, 22, 1449‒1457. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31817398c6
Dellal, A., Keller, D., Carling, C., Chaouachi, A., Wong, D., & Chamari, K. (2010). Physiological effects of directional changes in intermittent exercise in soccer players. J Strength Cond Res, 24, 3219‒3226. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b94a63
Dellal, A., Varliette, C., Owen, A., Chirico, E., & Pialoux, V. (2012). Small-sided games versus interval training in amateur soccer players: effects on the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with changes of direction. J Strength Cond Res, 26, 2712‒2720. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31824294c4
Dello Iacono, A., Eliakim, A., & Meckel, Y. (2015). Improving fitness of elite handball players: small-sided games vs high-intensity intermittent training. J Strength Cond Res, 29, 835‒843. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000686
Dello Iacono, A., Martone, D., Zagatto, AM., Meckel, Y., Sindiani, M., Milic, M., & Padulo, J. (2018). Effect of contact and no-contact small-sided games on elite handball players. J Sports Sci, 36, 14‒22. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1276296
Ekkekakis, P., Parfitt, G., & Petruzzello, SJ. (2011). The pleasure and displeasure people feel when they exercise at different intensities: decennial update and progress towards a tripartite rationale for exercise intensity prescription. Sport Med, 41, 641‒671. https://doi.org/10.2165/11590680-000000000-00000
Hill-Haas, S., Coutts, A., Rowsell, G., & Dawson, B. (2009). Generic versus small-sided game training in soccer. Int J Sports Med, 30, 636‒642. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1220730
Impellizzeri, FM., Marcora, SM., Castagna, C., Reilly T., Sassi, A., Iaia FM., & Rampinini E. (2006). Physiological and performance effects of generic versus specific aerobic training in soccer players. Int J Sports Med, 27, 483‒492. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-865839
Little, T., & Williams, AG. (2006). Suitability of soccer training drills for endurance training. J Strength Cond Res, 20, 316‒319.
Los Arcos, A., Vázquez, JS., Martín, J., Lerga, J., Sánchez, F., Villagra, F., & Zulueta, JJ. (2015). Effects of small-sided games vs. interval training in aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in young elite soccer players. PLoS One, 10, e0137224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137224
Michalsik, L., Aagaard, P., & Madsen, K. (2013). Locomotion characteristics and match-induced impairments in physical performance in male elite team handball players. Int J Sports Med, 34, 590‒599.
Michalsik, L., Madsen, K., & Aagaard, P. (2015). Physiological capacity and physical testing in male elite team handball. J Sports Med Phys Fit, 55, 415‒429.
Póvoas, S., Seabra, A., Ascensão, A., Magalhães, J., Soares, J., & Rebelo, A. (2012). Physical and physiological demands of elite team handball. J Strength Cond Res, 26, 3366‒3376. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318248aeee
Ravier, G., Hassenfratz, C., & Bouzigon, R. (2017). Reproducibility of heart rate and perceptual demands of game-based training drills in handball players. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum, 19, 515‒525. https://doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n5p515
License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/