Is the aerobic power a delimitating factor for performance on canoe slalom? An analysis of Olympic Slovak canoe slalom medalists and non-Olympics since Beijing 2008 to Rio 2016

Viktor Bielik, Leonardo Henrique Dalcheco Messias, Matej Vajda, Peter Lopata, Jakub Chudý, Fúlvia de Barros Manchado-Gobatto

Abstract

Information regarding the aerobic power on canoe slalom performance is scares. Moreover, the comparison of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) via specific and non-specific ergometer for slalom kayakers may improve training prescription and controlling over Olympic cycles. Lastly, it is still unknown to what extent the VO2max delimitate the high performance in this sport. To test this perspective, a highly qualified sample is desired. In overall statistics, Slovakian athletes gathered 14 Olympic medals over the last sixteen years. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to compare the aerobic power of Olympic medallists and Non-Olympic Slovakian kayakers via specific and non-specific evaluations from Beijing 2008 to Rio 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Forty-two male canoe slalom athletes from Slovak national team were evaluated between the years 2006 and 2016. Slovakian athletes were tested for specific (i.e. paddling ergometer) and non-specific (i.e. treadmill) incremental protocols for VO2max determination. Over the last three Summer Olympic Games, the VO2max of Slovakian Olympic medallists was consistently lower than most of the Slovakian team. Moreover, disregarding the medallist characteristic or the moment, Slovakian kayakers presented higher VO2max on treadmill (57.7±6.8 mL.kg-1.min-1) when compared to paddle ergometer (46.9±6.5 mL.kg-1.min-1) (p=0.000; ES=1.6). Based on the collected data over the last ten years, we suggest that although aerobic power may play a relevant and indirect role on performance of slalom kayakers, does not delimitate the high performance in this sport.


Keywords

Maximal oxygen consumption; Muscular power; Running speed; Paddler; Treadmill

References

Bassett, D. R. J., & Howley, E. T. (2000). Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 32(1), 70–84. United States. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200001000-00012

Bentley, D. J., Newell, J., & Bishop, D. (2007). Incremental exercise test design and analysis: implications for performance diagnostics in endurance athletes. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 37(7), 575–586. New Zealand. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200737070-00002

Bergh, U., Kanstrup, I. L., & Ekblom, B. (1976). Maximal oxygen uptake during exercise with various combinations of arm and leg work. Journal of applied physiology, 41(2), 191–196. United States. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1976.41.2.191

Bielik, V., Lendvorský, L., Lengvarský, L., Lopata, P., Petriska, R., & PelikáNová, J. (2018). Road to the Olympics: Physical ftness of medalists of the canoe Sprint Junior european and World championship events over the past 20 years. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 58(6).

Bobbert, A. C. (1960). Physiological comparison of three types of ergometry. Journal of Applied Physiology, 15(6), 1007 LP-1014. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1960.15.6.1007

Brooks, G. A. (2002). Lactate shuttles in nature. Biochemical Society transactions, 30(2), 258–264. England. https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0300258

Brooks, G. A. (2018). The Science and Translation of Lactate Shuttle Theory. Cell metabolism, 27(4), 757–785. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2018.03.008

Cohen, J. (1994). The earth is round (p < .05). American Psychologist. US: American Psychological Association.

Ferrari, H. G., Messias, L. H. D., Reis, I. G. M., Gobatto, C. A., Sousa, F. A. B., Serra, C. C. S., & Manchado-Gobatto, F. B. (2017). Aerobic Evaluation in Elite Slalom Kayakers Using a Tethered Canoe System: A New Proposal. International journal of sports physiology and performance, 12(7), 864–871. United States. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0272

Garcia-Pallares, J., Garcia-Fernandez, M., Sanchez-Medina, L., & Izquierdo, M. (2010). Performance changes in world-class kayakers following two different training periodization models. European journal of applied physiology, 110(1), 99–107. Germany. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1484-9

Garcia-Pallares, J., Sanchez-Medina, L., Carrasco, L., Diaz, A., & Izquierdo, M. (2009). Endurance and neuromuscular changes in world-class level kayakers during a periodized training cycle. European journal of applied physiology, 106(4), 629–638. Germany. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1061-2

Hahn, A. G. (1988). General and specific aerobic power of elite marathon kayakers and canoeists. (A. G. Hahn, P. M. Pang, D. M. Tumilty, & R. D. Telford, Eds.)Excel, 5(Bd. 2), S. 14-19. Belconnen.

Hopkins, W. G. (2007). A Spreadsheet for Deriving a Confidence Interval, Mechanistic Inference and Clinical Inference from a P Value. Sports Sciences, (11), 16–20.

Hunter, A., Cochrane, J., & Sachlikidis, A. (2007). Canoe slalom--competition analysis reliability. Sports biomechanics, 6(2), 155–170. Scotland. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763140701324842

Hunter, A., Cochrane, J., & Sachlikidis, A. (2008). Canoe slalom competition analysis. Sports biomechanics, 7(1), 24–37. Scotland. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763140701683155

MacIntyre, T. E., & Moran, A. P. (2007). A qualitative investigation of imagery use and meta-imagery processes among elite canoe-slalom competitors. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity. MacIntyre, Tadhg E.: tadhg.macintyre@ucd.ie: The Berkeley Electronic Press (bepress).

MacIntyre, T., Moran, A., & Jennings, D. J. (2002). Is controllability of imagery related to canoe-slalom performance? Perceptual and motor skills, 94(3 Pt 2), 1245–1250. United States. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.2002.94.3c.1245

Manchado-Gobatto, F. B., Arnosti Vieira, N., Dalcheco Messias, L. H., Ferrari, H. G., Borin, J. P., de Carvalho Andrade, V., & Terezani, D. R. (2014). Anaerobic threshold and critical velocity parameters determined by specific tests of canoe slalom: Effects of monitored training. Science & Sports, 29(4), e55–e58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scispo.2014.04.006

Messias, L. H. D., Ferrari, H. G., Reis, I. G. M., Scariot, P. P. M., & Manchado-Gobatto, F. B. (2015). Critical Velocity and Anaerobic Paddling Capacity Determined by Different Mathematical Models and Number of Predictive Trials in Canoe Slalom. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 14(1), 188–193. Uludag University.

Messias, L. H. D., Ferrari, H. G., Sousa, F. A. B., Dos Reis, I. G. M., Serra, C. C. S., Gobatto, C. A., & Manchado-Gobatto, F. B. (2015). All-out Test in Tethered Canoe System can Determine Anaerobic Parameters of Elite Kayakers. International journal of sports medicine, 36(10), 803–808. Germany. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1548766

Messias, L. H. D., dos Reis, I. G. M., Ferrari, H. G., & de Barros Manchado-Gobatto, F. (2014). Physiological, psychological and biomechanical parameters applied in canoe slalom training: a review. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 14(1), 24–41. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2014.11868700

Messias, L. H. D., Sousa, F. A. de B., Dos Reis, I. G. M., Ferrari, H. G., Gobatto, C. A., Serra, C. C. S., Papoti, M., et al. (2018). Novel paddle stroke analysis for elite slalom kayakers: Relationship with force parameters. PloS one, 13(2), e0192835. United States. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192835

Michael, J. S., Rooney, K. B., & Smith, R. (2008). The metabolic demands of kayaking: a review. Journal of sports science & medicine, 7(1), 1–7. Turkey.

Nibali, M., Hopkins, W. G., & Drinkwater, E. (2011). Variability and predictability of elite competitive slalom canoe-kayak performance. European Journal of Sport Science, 11(2), 125–130. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2010.487121

Shephard, R. J. (1987). Science and medicine of canoeing and kayaking. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 4(1), 19–33. New Zealand. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-198704010-00003

Sidney, K., & Shephard, R. J. (1973). Physiological characteristics and performance of the white-water paddler. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00422428

Simmons, R., & Shephard, R. J. (1971). Measurements of cardiac output in maximum exercise. Application of an acetylene rebreathing method to arm and leg exercise. Internationale Zeitschrift für angewandte Physiologie einschließlich Arbeitsphysiologie, 29(2), 159–172.

Tesch, P. A. (1983). Physiological characteristics of elite kayak paddlers. Canadian journal of applied sport sciences. Journal canadien des sciences appliquees au sport, 8(2), 87–91. Canada.

Tesch, P., Piehl, K., Wilson, G., & Karlsson, J. (1976). Physiological investigations of Swedish elite canoe competitors. Medicine and science in sports, 8(4), 214–218. United States. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-197600840-00002

Vaccaro, P., Gray, P. R., Clarke, D. H., & Morris, A. F. (1984). Physiological characteristics of world class white-water slalom paddlers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1984.10608404

Vrijens, J., Hoekstra, P., Bouckaert, J., & Van Uytvanck, P. (1975). Effects of training on maximal working capacity and haemodynamic response during arm and leg-exercise in a group of paddlers. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 34(1), 113–119. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00999923

Zamparo, P., Tomadini, S., Didone, F., Grazzina, F., Rejc, E., & Capelli, C. (2006). Bioenergetics of a slalom kayak (k1) competition. International journal of sports medicine, 27(7), 546–552. Germany. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-865922




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.144.16





License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/