Effects of high-intensity interval training while using a breathing-restrictive mask compared to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia

Bryanne N. Bellovary, Kelli E. King, Tony P. Nuñez, James J. McCormick, Andrew D. Wells, Kelsey C. Bourbeau, Zachary J. Fennel, Zidong Li, Kelly E. Johnson, Terence Moriarty, Christine M. Mermier

Abstract

Background: Previous studies of the Elevation Training Mask (ETM) describe comparisons between groups using the ETM and controls for effects on aerobic performance. However, comparisons have not been made to intermittent hypoxic training (IHT). Further, how the ETM impacts exercise economy is unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of training with the ETM compared to IHT on aerobic performance and cycling economy. Methods: Thirty participants were randomized into an ETM, IHT, or control group (n = 10 each). Pre- and post-testing occurred using a ramp VO2max test on a cycle ergometer allowing submaximal power output (PO) measures of economy. Economy was measured using POs of 100, 125, and 150W. High-intensity cycling interval training (HIIT) occurred 2x/week for 30 min/session for six weeks. Sessions were 20 min of HIIT (30s at 100% peak power output (PPO) of pre VO2max, 90s active recovery at 25W, 10 bouts) with a 5-minute warm-up and cool-down. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: All participants improved VO2max, PPO, and PO at ventilatory threshold 2 pre- to post-training (p < 0.05). Interactions between groups showed that the RER for the IHT group increased at 100W and 125W, and decreased at RERmax pre- to post-training while the ETM group showed the opposite response (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The ETM and IHT groups performed similarly to the control at maximal and submaximal effort following six weeks of training. The IHT group, but not the ETM group, experienced an increased glycolytic energy shift during submaximal exercise.

Keywords

Elevation training mask; Altitude; Cycling economy

References

Balke, B., Nagle, F. J., & Daniels, J. (1965). Altitude and Maximum Performance in Work and Sports Activity. JAMA, 194(6), 646–649. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1965.03090190068016

Bartlett, J. D., Close, G. L., MacLaren, D. P. M., Gregson, W., Drust, B., & Morton, J. P. (2011). High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: Implications for exercise adherence. J Sport Sci, 29(6), 547–553. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2010.545427

Biggs, N., England, B., Turcotte, N., Cook, M., & Williams, A. (2017). Effects of Simulated Altitude on Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Inspiratory Fitness. Int J Exerc Sci, 10(1). Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijes/vol10/iss1/13

Binder, R. K., Wonisch, M., Corra, U., Cohen-Solal, A., Vanhees, L., Saner, H., & Schmid, J.-P. (2008). Methodological approach to the first and second lactate threshold in incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil, 15(6), 726–734. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJR.0b013e328304fed4

Borg, G. A. V. (1982). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 14(5), 377–381. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198205000-00012

Brooks, G. A., Wolfel, E. E., Butterfield, G. E., Cymerman, A., Roberts, A. C., Mazzeo, R. S., & Reeves, J. T. (1998). Poor relationship between arterial [lactate] and leg net release during exercise at 4,300 m altitude. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 275(4), R1192–R1201. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.1998.275.4.R1192

Buskirk, E., & Taylor, H. L. (1957). Maximal oxygen intake and its relation to body composition, with special reference to chronic physical activity and obesity. Journal of Appl Physiol, 11(1), 72–78. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1957.11.1.72

Czuba, Milosz, Waskiewicz, Z., Zajac, A., Poprzecki, S., Cholewa, J., & Roczniok, R. (2011). The Effects of Intermittent Hypoxic Training on Aerobic Capacity and Endurance Performance in Cyclists. J Sports Sci Med, 10(1), 175–183.

Czuba, Miłosz, Wilk, R., Karpiński, J., Chalimoniuk, M., Zajac, A., & Langfort, J. (2017). Intermittent hypoxic training improves anaerobic performance in competitive swimmers when implemented into a direct competition mesocycle. PLoS ONE, 12(8), e0180380. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180380

Dehn, M. M., & Bruce, R. A. (1972). Longitudinal variations in maximal oxygen intake with age and activity. Journal of Applied Physiology, 33(6), 805–807. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1972.33.6.805

Fleg, J. L., & Lakatta, E. G. (1988). Role of muscle loss in the age-associated reduction in VO2 max. J Appl Physiol, 65(3), 1147–1151. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1988.65.3.1147

Fulco, C. S., Rock, P. B., & Cymerman, A. (1998). Maximal and submaximal exercise performance at altitude. Aviat Space Environ Med, 69(8), 793–801.

Gore, Christopher J., Hahn, A. G., Aughey, R. J., Martin, D. T., Ashenden, M. J., Clark, S. A., … McKenna, M. J. (2001). Live high:train low increases muscle buffer capcity and submaximal cycling efficiency. Acta Physiol, 173(3), 275–286. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-201X.2001.00906.x

Gore, Christopher John, Clark, S. A., & Saunders, P. U. (2007). Nonhematological Mechanisms of Improved Sea-Level Performance after Hypoxic Exposure. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39(9), 1600–1609. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e3180de49d3

Granados, J., Gillum, T. L., Castillo, W., Christmas, K. M., & Kuennen, M. R. (2016). "Functional" Respiratory Muscle Training During Endurance Exercise Causes Modest Hypoxemia but Overall is Well Tolerated. J Strength Cond Res, 30(3), 755–762. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001151

Hamlin, M. J., Marshall, H. C., Hellemans, J., Ainslie, P. N., & Anglem, N. (2009). Effect of intermittent hypoxic training on 20 km time trial and 30 s anaerobic performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 20(4), 651–661. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00946.x

Katayama, K., Matsuo, H., Ishida, K., Mori, S., & Miyamura, M. (2003). Intermittent Hypoxia Improves Endurance Performance and Submaximal Exercise Efficiency. High Alt Med Biol, 4(3), 291–304. https://doi.org/10.1089/152702903769192250

Katayama, K., Sato, K., Matsuo, H., Ishida, K., Iwasaki, K., & Miyamura, M. (2004). Effect of intermittent hypoxia on oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise in endurance athletes. Euro J Appl Physiol, 92(1–2), 75–83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-004-1054-0

Levine, B. D. (2002). Intermittent hypoxic training: fact and fancy. High Alt Med Biol, 3(2), 177–193. https://doi.org/10.1089/15270290260131911

Levine, B. D., & Stray-Gundersen, J. (1997). "Living high-training low": effect of moderate-altitude acclimatization with low-altitude training on performance. J Appl Physiol, 83(1), 102–112. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1997.83.1.102

McLean, B. D., Gore, C. J., & Kemp, J. (2014). Application of 'Live Low-Train High' for Enhancing Normoxic Exercise Performance in Team Sport Athletes. Sports Med, 44(9), 1275–1287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0204-8

Porcari, J. P., Probst, L., Forrester, K., Doberstein, S., Foster, C., Cress, M. L., & Schmidt, K. (2016). Effect of Wearing the Elevation Training Mask on Aerobic Capacity, Lung Function, and Hematological Variables. J Sports Sci Med, 15(2), 379–386.

Robergs, R. A. (2001). An exercise physiologist's "contemporary" interpretations of the "ugly and creaking edifices" of the VO2max concept. J Exerc Physiol Online, 4(1), 1–44.

Roels, B., Millet, G. P., Marcoux, C. J. L., Coste, O., Bentley, D. J., & Candau, R. B. (2005). Effects of hypoxic interval training on cycling performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 37(1), 138–146. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000150077.30672.88

Sellers, J. H., Monaghan, T. P., Schnaiter, J. A., Jacobson, B. H., & Pope, Z. K. (2016). Efficacy of a Ventilatory Training Mask to Improve Anaerobic and Aerobic Capacity in Reserve Officersʼ Training Corps Cadets. J Strength Cond Res, 30(4), 1155–1160. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001184

Stray-Gundersen, J., Chapman, R. F., & Levine, B. D. (2001). "Living high-training low" altitude training improves sea level performance in male and female elite runners. J Appl Physiol, 91(3), 1113–1120. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2001.91.3.1113

Truijens, M. J., Rodríguez, F. A., Townsend, N. E., Stray-Gundersen, J., Gore, C. J., & Levine, B. D. (2008). The effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxic exposure and sea level training on submaximal economy in well-trained swimmers and runners. J Appl Physiol, 104(2), 328–337. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01324.2006

Warren, B. G., Spaniol, F., & Bonnette, R. (2017). The effects of an elevation training mask on VO2Max of male reserve officers training corps cadets. Intl J Exerc Sci, 10(1), 37–43.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.144.11





License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/