Laterality of lower limb and plantar pressure symmetry while walking in young adults


  • Soňa Jandová Technical University of Liberec, Czechia



Dynamography, Foot preference, Gait, Injury, Motion tasks


The aim of this study is to discover whether the lateral preference of the lower limbs influences the selected dynamical parameters of the gait and to discover whether the data of the healthy limb can be used as reference ones in patients after lower limb injuries. 51young adults (age 22 ± 2 years, height 1.72 ± 0.1 m, body weight: 70 ± 16 kg) took part in the measurement. Foot preference for 5 different motion tasks (kicking a ball, stepping down from a stool, single leg stance, picking up marbles, hopping on one leg ) was observed repetitively and dynamographic records of participants’ gait using force plate (Emed®-c50, Novel, De) were performed. The average values of the maximum vertical force relativized to body weight (RFmax), maximal Peak Pressure (P.P), Force Time Integral (FTI) and Contact Time (C.T.) were analysed and the symmetrical indices (SI) were calculated. No statistically significant differences were measured in selected dynamic parameters between the preferred and non-preferred foot. The study of laterality in symmetrical gait in a group of young adults has proven that lateral preference of lower extremities does not significantly influence the selected dynamic parameters and that the gait in a group of young adults can be considered as symmetrical from this point of view. In a group of patients after lower limb injuries it is not necessary to take laterality before injury into consideration during walking at normal speed.


Download data is not yet available.


Bell, J., & Gabbard, C. (2000). Foot preference changes through adulthood. Laterality. 5, 63-68.

Brown, S.G., Roy, E.A, Rohr, L.E, & Bryden, P.J. (2006). Using hand performance measures to predict handedness. Laterality. 11, 1-14.

Dahmen R., & Fagard, J. (2005). The effect of explicit cultural bias on lateral preferences in Tunisia. Cortex. 41, 805-815.

Devita, P., Hong, D., & Hamill, J. (1991). Effects of asymmetric load carrying on the biomechanics of walking. J Biomech. 24(12), 1119–29.

Griffin, M.P., Olney, S.J., & McBride, I.D. (1995). Role of symmetry in gait performance of stroke subjects with hemiplegia. Gait  Posture. 3, 132–42.

Gundersen, L.A., Valle, D.R., Barr, A.E., Danoff, J.V., Stanhope, S.J., & Snyder-Mackler, L. (1989). Bilateral analysis of the knee and ankle during gait: an examination of the relationship between lateral dominance and symmetry. Phys Ther. 69(8), 640–50.

Herzog, W, Nigg, B.M., Read, L.J., & Olssen, E. (1989). Asymmetries in ground reaction force patterns in normal human gait. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 21, 110-114.

Jandova, S., Cernekova, M., & Pazour, J. (2016). Plantar Pressure Asymmetry in Patients Six Months after Surgical Treatment of Calcaneal Fractures in Adults. British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research. 15 (4).

Jandova, S., Volf, P., & Nagy, L. (2015). Pressure distribution under the feet on the treadmill walking with unstable shoes and regular running shoes in different conditions. Procedia Engineering. 112, 302-307.

Kalabova, H. (2015). Chronic fatiuge syndrome - onticity and ontology illnes. PsychoSom. 13(3), 187-202.

Kalaycioglu, C., Kara, C., Atbasoglu, C., & Nalçaci, E. (2008). Aspects of foot prefer- ence: Differential relationships of skilled and unskilled foot movements with motor asymmetry. Laterality. 13, 124-142.

Maupas, E., Paysant, J., Datie, A., Martinet, N., & Andre, J. (2002). Functional asymmetries of the lower limbs. A comparison between clinical assessment of laterality, isokinetic evaluation and electrogoniometric monitoring of knees during walking. Gait  Posture. 16, 304-312.

Menard, M.R., McBride, M.E., Sanderson, D.J., & Murray, D.D. (1992). Comparative biomechanical analysis of energy-storing prosthetic feet. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 73(5), 451–8.

Meylan, C.M., Nosaka, K., Green, J., & Cronin, J.B. (2010). Temporal and kinetic analysis of unilateral jumping in the vertical, horizontal, and lateral directions. J Sports Sci. 28(5), 545-554.

Miyaguchi, K., & Demura, S. (2010). Specific factors that influence deciding the takeoff leg during jumping movements. J Strength & Cond. Res. 24(9), 2516-2522.

Sadeghi, H., Allard, P., & Duhaime, M. (1997). Functional gait asymmetry in able-bodied subjects. Hum. Mov. Sci. 16, 243-258.

Strike, S.C., & Taylor, M.J.D. (2009). The temporal-spatial and ground reaction impulses of turning gait: is turning symmetrical? Gait  Posture. 29, 597-602.

Schneiders, A.G., Sullivan, S.J., O´Malley, K.J., Clarke, S.V., Knappstein, S.A., & Taylor, L.J. (2010). A Valid and Reliable Clinical Determination of Footedness. PM&R. 2(9), 835-41.

Titianova, E.B., & Tarkka, I.M. (1995). Asymmetry in walking performance and postural sway in patients with chronic unilateral cerebral infarction. J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 32 (3), 236–44.

Vagenas, G., & Hoshizaki, B.A. (1992). Multivariable analysis of lower extremity kinematic asymmetry in running. Int J SportsBiomech. 8(1), 11–29.

White, S.C., Gilchrist, L.A., & Wilk, B.E. (2004). Asymetric limb loading with true or simulated leg-lenght differences. Clin Orth Rel Res. 421, 287-292.


Statistics RUA



How to Cite

Jandová, S. (2019). Laterality of lower limb and plantar pressure symmetry while walking in young adults. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14(4), 834–840.