Jump and balance test in judo athletes with or without visual impairments


  • Rocco Spera University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy
  • Immacolata Belviso University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy
  • Felice Sirico University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy
  • Stefano Palermi University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy
  • Bruno Massa University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy
  • Filomena Mazzeo University of Naples Parthenope, Italy
  • Pietro Montesano University of Naples Parthenope, Italy




Visual impairment people, Balance, Judo


The study was conducted for four months with 8 judo athletes: 4 sighted people (4 M) and 4 visual impairment people (3 M and 1 F), aged between 18 and 52 (30.75 ± 12.74). According to the IBSA Visual Classification, all visual impairment subjects participating in our study were covered in the B1 category of visual deficit. This is a group represented by patients with no light perception in either eye up to light perception, and with an inability to recognize the shape of a hand at any distance or in any direction. From our cohort it was excluded subjects who have had low extremities musculoskeletal, neurological, or orthopaedic disorders in the previous six months. The aim of the study was to evaluate their balance with both closed and opened eyes and to set their lower limbs’ strength: these are indispensable characteristics to carry out technical actions of judo. Anthropometric measures were compared between groups and data about jump protocol and balance protocol were analysed. Results of current research showed that postural stability is different in function of assessment with closed and open eyes. The result of the jump tests differs because the data do not show significant differences between long jump and high jump. The comparison between blinded and sighted judo athletes highlighted greater difficulties with eyes closed for sighted athletes than blinded ones.


Download data is not yet available.


Altavilla, G., Mazzeo, F., D’Elia, F., & Raiola, G. (2018). Physical commitment and specific work for each role in an elite soccer team. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 18(2), 570-574. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2018.02083

Almuzaini, K. S. et Fleck, S. J. (2008). Modification of the Standing Long Jump Test Enhances Ability to Predict Anaerobic Performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(4), 1265‑1272. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181739838

Brouwer, D. M., Sadlo, G., Winding, K. et Hanneman, M. I. G. (2008). Limitations in Mobility: Experiences of Visually Impaired Older People. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71(10), 414‑421. https://doi.org/10.1177/030802260807101003

Capicíková, N., Rocchi, L., Hlavacka, F., Chiari, L. et Cappello, A. (2006). Human postural response to lower leg muscle vibration of different duration. Physiological research, 55 Suppl 1, S129-34. Retrieved at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17177621

Choy, N. L., Brauer, S. et Nitz, J. (2003). Changes in postural stability in women aged 20 to 80 years. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, 58(6), 525‑30. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/58.6.m525

Horvat, M., Nocera, J., Ray, C. et Croce, R. (2006). Comparison of Isokinetic Peak Force and Power in Adults with Partial and Total Blindness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 103(1), 231‑237. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.103.1.231-237

Houglum, P. A. (2010). Therapeutic exercise for musculoskeletal injuries. Human Kinetics.

Hsu, W.-L., Scholz, J. P., Schöner, G., Jeka, J. J. et Kiemel, T. (2007). Control and Estimation of Posture During Quiet Stance Depends on Multijoint Coordination. Journal of Neurophysiology, 97(4), 3024‑3035. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.01142.2006

Hurvitz, E. A., Richardson, J. K., Werner, R. A., Ruhl, A. M. et Dixon, M. R. (2000). Unipedal stance testing as an indicator of fall risk among older outpatients. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 81(5), 587‑91. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0003-9993(00)90039-x

Iolascon, G., Sirico, F., Ferrante, A., Gimigliano, R. et Gimigliano, F. (2010). Risedronate’s efficacy: from randomized clinical trials to real clinical practice. Clinical cases in mineral and bone metabolism : the official journal of the Italian Society of Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism, and Skeletal Diseases, 7(1), 19‑22. Retrieved at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22461286

Ivers, R. Q., Cumming, R. G., Mitchell, P. et Attebo, K. (1998). Visual impairment and falls in older adults: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46(1), 58‑64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1998.tb01014.x

Kurz, A., Lauber, B., Franke, S. et Leukel, C. (2018). Balance Training Reduces Postural Sway and Improves Sport-specific Performance in Visually Impaired Cross-Country Skiers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 1. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002597

Lee, H. K. M. et Scudds, R. J. (2003). Comparison of balance in older people with and without visual impairment. Age and ageing, 32(6), 643‑9. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afg110

Leissner, J., Coenen, M., Froehlich, S., Loyola, D. et Cieza, A. (2014). What explains health in persons with visual impairment? Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12(1), 65. doi:10.1186/1477-7525-12-65. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-12-65

Lesinski, M., Muehlbauer, T. et Granacher, U. (2016). Concurrent validity of the Gyko inertial sensor system for the assessment of vertical jump height in female sub-elite youth soccer players . BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, 8(1), 35. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-016-0061-x

Loturco, I., Nakamura, F. Y., Tricoli, V., Kobal, R., Cal Abad, C. C., Kitamura, K., … González-Badillo, J. J. (2015). Determining the Optimum Power Load in Jump Squat Using the Mean Propulsive Velocity. PloS one, 10(10), e0140102. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140102

Loturco, I., Winckler, C., Kobal, R., Cal Abad, C. C., Kitamura, K., Veríssimo, A. W., … Nakamura, F. Y. (2015). Performance changes and relationship between vertical jump measures and actual sprint performance in elite sprinters with visual impairment throughout a Parapan American games training season. Frontiers in Physiology, 6, 323. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2015.00323

Maćkowiak, Z., Osiński, W. et Salamon, A. (2015). The Effect of Sensorimotor Training on the Postural Stability of Visually Impaired Women Over 50 Years of Age. Journal of Women & Aging, 27(1), 68‑80. https://doi.org/10.1080/08952841.2014.928140

Marieb, E. N. et Hoehn, K. (2004). Anatomie et physiologie humaines 5e | Pearson ERPI. Retrieved at https://pearsonerpi.com/fr/collegial-universitaire/anatomie-physiologie/anatomie-et-physiologie-humaines-5e

Maulder, P. et Cronin, J. (2005). Horizontal and vertical jump assessment: reliability, symmetry, discriminative and predictive ability. Physical Therapy in Sport, 6(2), 74‑82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2005.01.001

Mazzeo, F., & Volpe, R. A. (2016). From gene doping to athlete biological passport. Sport Science, 9(2), 97-103.

Mazzeo, F., Santamaria, S., & Montesano, P. (2019). Gender difference, nutritional supplements and drug use in sport to enhancing performance: An italian revision over the last decade. Sport Mont,17(1), 69-73. https://doi.org/10.26773/smj.190212

Mazzeo, F., Monda, V., Santamaria, S., Nigro, E., Valenzano, A., Villano, I., . . . Messina, G. (2018). Antidoping program: An important factor in the promotion and protection of the integrity of sport and athlete's health. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 58(7-8), 1135-1145. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07722-2

Montesano, P., Tafuri, D., Esposito, A., Gigante, F., Salzano, E., Viscido, G., & Mazzeo, F. (2013). Conditional abilities in young special olympics athletes who practice unified football. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 13(4), 504-510. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2013.04079

Montesano, P., & Mazzeo, F. (2018). Pilates improvement the individual basics of service and smash in volleyball. Sport Mont, 16(3), 25-30. https://doi.org/10.26773/smj.181005

Montesano, P. (2016). Goalkeeper in soccer: performance and explosive strenght. Journal of Physical Education and Sport ® (JPES), 16(1), 230‑233. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2016.01036

Montesano, P. (2018). Monitoring and upgrading of coordinative and conditional capacities of young athletes practicing handball. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 18, 465‑468. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2018.s165

Montesano, P., Tafuri, D. et Mazzeo, F. (2013). Improvement of the motor performance difference in athletes of weelchair Basketball. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 13(3), 362‑370. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2013.03058

Newton, R. (s.d.). Review of tests of standing balance abilities. Brain injury, 3(4), 335‑43. Retrieved at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2684312

Owsley, C., McGwin, G., Lee, P. P., Wasserman, N. et Searcey, K. (2009). Characteristics of Low-Vision Rehabilitation Services in the United States. Archives of Ophthalmology, 127(5), 681. https://doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2009.55

Palm, H.-G., Strobel, J., Achatz, G., von Luebken, F. et Friemert, B. (2009). The role and interaction of visual and auditory afferents in postural stability. Gait & Posture, 30(3), 328‑333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2009.05.023

Rauschecker, J. P. (1995). Compensatory plasticity and sensory substitution in the cerebral cortex. Trends in neurosciences, 18(1), 36‑43. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-2236(95)93948-w

Ray, C. T., Horvat, M., Croce, R., Christopher Mason, R. et Wolf, S. L. (2008). The impact of vision loss on postural stability and balance strategies in individuals with profound vision loss. Gait & Posture, 28(1), 58‑61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2007.09.010

Sadowska, D., Stemplewski, R. et Szeklicki, R. (2015). The Effect of Physical Exercise on Postural Stability in Sighted Individuals and Those Who Are Visually Impaired: An Analysis Adjusted for Physical Activity and Body Mass Index. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 31(5), 318‑323. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.2014-0228

Schmid, M., Nardone, A., De Nunzio, A. M., Schmid, M. et Schieppati, M. (2007). Equilibrium during static and dynamic tasks in blind subjects: no evidence of cross-modal plasticity. Brain, 130(8), 2097‑2107. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awm157

Schwesig, R., Goldich, Y., Hahn, A., Müller, A., Kohen-Raz, R., Kluttig, A. et Morad, Y. (2011). Postural Control in Subjects with Visual Impairment. European Journal of Ophthalmology, 21(3), 303‑309. https://doi.org/10.5301/ejo.2010.5504

Sirico, F., Miressi, S., Castaldo, C., Spera, R., Montagnani, S., Di Meglio, F. et Nurzynska, D. (2018). Habits and beliefs related to food supplements: Results of a survey among Italian students of different education fields and levels. PLOS ONE, 13(1), e0191424. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191424

Sobry, V., Badin, P., Cernaianu, S., Agnani, O. et Toussaint, M. (2014). Do visually impaired people have a static balance as effective as sighted people? NeuroRehabilitation, 35(4), 851‑61. https://doi.org/10.3233/NRE-141181

Springer, B. A., Marin, R., Cyhan, T., Roberts, H. et Gill, N. W. (2007). Normative values for the unipedal stance test with eyes open and closed. Journal of geriatric physical therapy (2001), 30(1), 8‑15. https://doi.org/10.1519/00139143-200704000-00003

Trojian, T. H. et McKeag, D. B. (2006). Single leg balance test to identify risk of ankle sprains. British journal of sports medicine, 40(7), 610‑3; discussion 613. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.024356

Vellas, B. J., Rubenstein, L. Z., Ousset, P. J., Faisant, C., Kostek, V., Nourhashemi, F., … Albarede, J. L. (s.d.). One-leg standing balance and functional status in a population of 512 community-living elderly persons. Aging (Milan, Italy), 9(1‑2), 95‑8. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03340133

World Health Organization. (2015). ICD-10 Version: 2015. Retrieved at https://icd.who.int/browse10/2015/en#/H54


Statistics RUA



How to Cite

Spera, R., Belviso, I., Sirico, F., Palermi, S., Massa, B., Mazzeo, F., & Montesano, P. (2019). Jump and balance test in judo athletes with or without visual impairments. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14(4proc), S937-S947. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.14.Proc4.56

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2