Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Differences in anger depending on sport performance in table tennis players

Higinio González-García, Antonia Pelegrín Muñoz, Alfonso Trinidad Morales



The aim of this study is to determine if there are differences in anger levels depending on sport performance in table tennis players. The sample consisted of 93 Spanish table tennis players, 20 players were professionals (21.50%) and 73 were amateur (78.49%). An ad hoc Sociodemographic Questionnaire and the Trait-State Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI 2), were used to measure the different variables. The results showed significant differences in external anger expression (p<.05), depending on league level where the players who took part in greater leagues showed lower levels of anger. Additionally, internal anger control (p<.05) and anger expression index (p<.05) reported significant differences depending on league level where the players who took part in greater leagues showed greater levels. It was concluded that there are differences in anger levels depending on division level. Therefore, it is important to coach players towards anger control in table tennis.


Emotion; Racket sport; Emotional control; Behaviour


Cantón, E., & Checa, I. (2012). Emotional states and their relationship to attributions and expectations of self-efficacy in sport. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 21(1), 171-176.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New York: Academic Press.

Davis, P. A. (2011). Angry Athletes: Psychological, Physiological, and Performance Implications. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc.

Davis, P. A., Woodman, T., & Callow, N. (2010). Better out than in: the influence of anger regulation on physical performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(5), 57-460.

Deffenbacher, J. L., & Mckay, M. (2000). Overcoming situational and general anger. A protocol for the treatment of anger based on relaxation, cognitive restructuring, and coping skills training. Therapist protocol. Oakland: New Harbinger.

García-Naveira, A., Ruiz, R., & Pujals, C. (2011). Personality differences according to participation in or abstention from sport, competition level and age category in football players based on costa and mccrae’s model. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 20(1), 29-44.

González-García, H. (2017). Parental education styles and personal variables that influence on sport performance. Doctoral Thesis Unpublished. Miguel Hernández University of Elche, Elche, Spain.

Google, LLC. (2018, September 26). Google drive platform. Retrieved in 26 of September of 2018 from

Graydon, J., & Murphy, T. (1995). The effect of personality on social facilitation whilst performing a sports related task. Personality and Individual Differences, 19(2), 265-267.

Hanin, Y. (2007). Emotions in sports: currents issues and perspectives. En G. Tenembaum, y R. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of Sport Psychology (pp. 31-58). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Hanton, S., Jones, G., & Mullen, R. (2000). Intensity and direction of competitive state anxiety as interpreted by rugby players and rifle shooters. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90(2), 513-521.

IBM Corporation. (2012). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, New York: IBM Corporation.

Lench, H. C. (2004). Anger management: Diagnostic differences and treatment implications. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(4), 512-531.

Martin, R., Wan, C. K., David, J. P., Wegner, E. L., & Olson, B. D. (1999). Style of Anger Expression: Relation to Expressivity, Personality, and Health. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(10), 1196-1207.

Martinent, G., Campo, M., & Ferrand, C. (2011). A descriptive study of emotional process during competition: Nature, frequency, direction, duration and cooccurrence of discrete emotions. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(2), 142-151.

Martinent, G., & Ferrand, C. (2009). A naturalistic qualitative study of the directional interpretation process of discrete emotions during high-stakes table tennis matches. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31, 318-336.

Maxwell, J. P., Visek, A. J., & Moores, E. (2009). Anger and perceived legitimacy of aggression in male Hong Kong Chinese athletes: Effects of type of sport and level of competition. Psychology Sport and Exercise, 10(2), 289-296.

Menéndez-Santurio, J. I., & Fernández-Río, J. (2015). Anger intensity in boxing and kickboxing practitioners: differences based on discipline and competitive level. Cuadernos de Psicología del deporte, 15(3), 75-86.

Microsoft Corporation. (2016, September 26). Electronic excel spreadsheets. Retrieved in 26 of September of 2018 from

Mowlaie, M., Besharat, M. A., Pourbohlool, S., & Azizi, L. (2011). The Mediation Effects of Self-Confidence and Sport Self-Efficacy on the Relationship Between Dimensions of Anger and Anger Control with Sport Performance. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 138–142.

Oliva-Mendoza, F. J., & Calleja, N. (2010). Medición de la ira en el deporte de combate: Validación del STAXI-2 en deportistas Mexicanos. Liberabit: Lima, 16(1), 51-60.

Oliva Mendoza, F., Calleja Bello, N., & Hernández Pozo, R. (2016). Escala de creencias sobre la ira en el deporte de combate con atletas mexicanos / Scale of beliefs about the anger in the sport of combat with mexican athletes. Revista Internacional De Medicina Y Ciencias De La Actividad FíSica Y Del Deporte, 0(45). Retrieved from

Pelegrín, A., Serpa, S., & Rosado, A. (2013). Aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours in competitive sports: an analysis of related personal and environmental variables. Anales de psicología, 29(3), 701-713.

Robazza, C., & Bortoli, L. (2007). Perceived impact of anger and anxiety on sporting performance in rugby players. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8(6), 875-896.

Robyn, L. V., Robyn, L., & Robert, P. (2010). Emotions in sport: Perceived effects on attention, concentration, and performance. Australian Psychologist, 45(2), 132-140.

Rosenthal, R. (1991). Meta-analytic procedures for social research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Ruiz, R. (2004). Análisis de las características psicológicas, deportivas y sociales en el deporte del judo a nivel competitivo: Una propuesta teórica y metodológica para la predicción del rendimiento. Doctoral Thesis Unpublished. University Autonoma of Madrid, Madrid.

Ruiz, M. C., & Yuri, H. L. (2011). Perceived impact of anger on performance of skilled karate athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(3), 242-249.

Spielberger, C. D. (1999). Professional manual for the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2). Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Spielberger, C. D., Miguel-Tobal, J. J., Casado, M. I., & Cano-Vindel, A. (2001). Expression Inventory of State-Trait Anger –STAXI 2. Madrid: TEA.

Steffgen, G. (2017). Anger Management - Evaluation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Training Program for Table Tennis Players. Journal of Human Kinetics, 55(1), 65–73.

Tamir, M., Mitchell, C., & Gross, J. J. (2008). Hedonic and Instrumental Motives in Anger Regulation. Psychological Science, 19(4), 324-328.


Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.