Relationship between subjective effort and kinematics/kinetics in the 50 m sprint

Gaku Kakehata, Kai Kobayashi, Akifumi Matsuo, Kazuyuki Kanosue, Shigeo Iso

Abstract

Purpose. This study investigated the relationship between subjective effort (SE) and kinematics/kinetics throughout an entire 50 m sprint. Methods. Fifteen male sprinters performed the 50 m sprint at 3 different levels of SE (100 %SE; maximal-effort, 90 %SE and 80 %SE, sub-maximal efforts). Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained with a digital high speed camera and 50 ground reaction force (GRF) plates placed every 1 m in the running lane. Variables recorded were sprint time, running speed, step frequency, step length, aerial time, contact time, GRF, and ground reaction impulse (GRI). Results & Discussion. Sprint times decreased with increases in SE. However, some subjects ran their fastest 50m at a sub-maximal SE. Thus, the optimal combination of step length & frequency necessary for obtaining maximum speed does not necessarily occur at maximal SE. Indeed, while step frequency significantly increased with an increase in SE, step length was usually the longest at a sub-maximal SE. The vertical GRI in the first half of the ground contact period was significantly greater at sub-maximal SEs. Vertical GRIs and horizontal GRIs in the second half of the ground contact period did not significantly differ among different SEs. Our results suggest that those runners who increase SF too much at maximal SE do so at the cost of decreasing step length (SL). Thus, applying a large force against the ground in the first half of the ground contact period would be effective for improving step length.

Keywords

Sprint Running; Subjective Efforts; Kinematics; Kinetics

References

Borg, G. (1982). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med sci sports exerc, 14(5), 377-381. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198205000-00012

Borg, G. (1987). Relationships between perceived exertion, hr and hla in cycling, running and walking. Scand J Sports Sci, 9(3), 69-77.

Borg, G., Domserius, M., & Kaijser, L. (1990). Effect of alcohol on perceived exertion in relation to heart rate and blood lactate. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 60(5), 382-384. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00713503

Clark, K. P., Ryan, L. J., & Weyand, P. G. (2017). A general relationship links gait mechanics and running ground reaction forces. J Exp Biol, 220(2), 247-258. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.138057

Clark, K. P., & Weyand, P. G. (2014). Are running speeds maximized with simple-spring stance mechanics? J Appl Physiol, 117(6), 604-615. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00174.2014

Debaere, S., Jonkers, I., & Delecluse, C. (2013). The contribution of step characteristics to sprint running performance in high-level male and female athletes. J Strength Cond Res, 27(1), 116-124. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825183ef

Eston, R., Faulkner, J., St Clair Gibson, A., Noakes, T., & Parfitt, G. (2007). The effect of antecedent fatiguing activity on the relationship between perceived exertion and physiological activity during a constant load exercise task. J Psychophysiology, 44(5), 779-786. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00558.x

Fukuda, K., & Ito, A. (2004). Relationship between sprint running velocity and changes in the horizontal velocity of the body's center of gravity during the foot contact phase. Japanese Society of Physical Education, 49(1), 29-39. https://doi.org/10.5432/jjpehss.KJ00003390917

Hunter, J. P., Marshall, R. N., & McNair, P. J. (2004). Interaction of step length and step rate during sprint running. Med sci sports exerc, 36(2), 261-271. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000113664.15777.53

Hunter, J. P., Marshall, R. N., & McNair, P. J. (2005). Relationships between ground reaction force impulse and kinematics of sprint-running acceleration. Journal of applied biomechanics, 21(1), 31-43. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.21.1.31

Ito, K., & Muraki, S. (2005). The effect of subjective effort on speed, stride frequency and length and leg movement in sprint running. The Japan journal of coaching studies, 18(1), 61-73.

Ito, K., Muraki, S., & Kaneko, M. (2001). The influence of subjective effort on sprint running during acceleration phase. The Japan journal of coaching studies, 14(1), 65-76.

Korchemny, R. (1992). A new concept of sprint start and acceleration training. New Studies in Athletics, 7, 65-65.

Kunz, H., & Kaufmann, D. (1981). Biomechanical analysis of sprinting: Decathletes versus champions. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 15(3), 177-181. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.15.3.177

Lagally, K. M., & Robertson, R. J. (2006). Construct validity of the omni resistance exercise scale. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research, 20(2), 252.

Lockie, R. G., Murphy, A. J., Jeffriess, M. D., & Callaghan, S. J. (2013). Step kinematic predictors of short sprint performance in field sport athletes. Serbian Journal of Sports Sciences, 7(2).

Mackala, K. (2007). Optimisation of performance through kinematic analysis of the different phases of the 100 metres. New Studies in Athletics, 22(2), 7.

Mero, A., & Komi, P. V. (1986). Force-, emg-, and elasticity-velocity relationships at submaximal, maximal and supramaximal running speeds in sprinters. European journal of applied physiology, 55(5), 553-561. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00421652

Morin, J. B., Slawinski, J., Dorel, S., de Villareal, E. S., Couturier, A., Samozino, P., . . . Rabita, G. (2015). Acceleration capability in elite sprinters and ground impulse: Push more, brake less? J Biomech, 48(12), 3149-3154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.07.009

Muraki, Y., Ito, K., Handa, Y., Kaneko, M., & Sheng, W. (1999). The influence of changes in subjective effort at the high-intensity range upon the sprint performance. The Japan journal of coaching studies, 12(1), 59-67.

Nagahara, R., Mizutani, M., Matsuo, A., Kanehisa, H., & Fukunaga, T. (2017). Association of step width with accelerated sprinting performance and ground reaction force. International journal of sports medicine, 38(07), 534-540. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-106191

Ogura, Y., Shimizu, S., Ogata, M., Sekioka, Y., Nagai, J., & Miyashita, K. (1997). Investigation on the relationship between subjective and objective intensities in sprint running for junior high school boys. Japanese Journal of Sport Education Studies, 17(1), 29-36. https://doi.org/10.7219/jjses.17.29

Robertson, R. J., Goss, F. L., Boer, N. F., Peoples, J. A., Foreman, A. J., Dabayebeh, I. M., . . . Gallagher, J. D. (2000). Children's omni scale of perceived exertion: Mixed gender and race validation. Medicine Science in Sports Exercise, 32(2), 452-458. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200002000-00029

Robertson, R. J., Goss, F. L., Rutkowski, J., Lenz, B., Dixon, C., Timmer, J., . . . Andreacci, J. (2003). Concurrent validation of the omni perceived exertion scale for resistance exercise. Medicine Science in Sports Exercise, 35(2), 333-341. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000048831.15016.2A

Salo, A. I., Bezodis, I. N., Batterham, A. M., & Kerwin, D. G. (2011). Elite sprinting: Are athletes individually step-frequency or step-length reliant? Medicine Science in Sports Exercise, 43(6), 1055-1062. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318201f6f8

Shinohara, Y., & Maeda, M. (2016). Track and field experience and the relation between subjective effort and changes in running velocity. Journal of training science for exercise and sport, 27(3), 81-92.

Sugimoto, & Maeda, M. (2013). Effect of athletic performance level on relation between subjective effort and movement of sprint running. The Japan Society of Coaching Studies, 26(2), 145-154.

Utter, A. C., Robertson, R. J., Green, J. M., Suminski, R. R., McAnulty, S. R., & Nieman, D. C. (2004). Validation of the adult omni scale of perceived exertion for walking/running exercise. Med sci sports exerc, 36(10), 1776-1780. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000142310.97274.94




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2020.151.06





License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/