Multilateral methodology in physical education improves coping skills, resilience and physical fitness in drug addicts
Drug addiction may cause health problems and social exclusion. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 8-week multilateral physical education intervention (i.e., aerobic-anaerobic exercise at moderate-intensity plus behavioural training), as an adjunct to treatment for drug dependent patients, on psychological and physical fitness variables. 34 male participants (19-71 years) were assigned to an experimental group (n = 17) that performed multilateral intervention, or a control group (n = 17) that did not. At baseline and after 8-week, COPE-NVI, CD-RISC and physical fitness tests assessed coping skills, resilience and fitness levels. Adherence to exercise was 100% and, after intervention, significant improvements (p < 0.05) in the skills and strategies adopted to cope with stressful events and ability to deal with negative experiences were found. In addition, the physical fitness components as static and dynamic balance, anaerobic power and coordination, and endurance of the upper body musculature significantly improved (p < 0.05) in experimental group. Findings highlighted the positive relationship between increased physical fitness and improved functional and adaptive modalities used to cope with stressful events and negative experiences. Therefore, multilateral intervention could improve mental and physical wellbeing in drug addicts by proving to be a key tool in promoting social inclusion.
Abrantes, A. M., Battle, C. L., Strong, D. R., Ing, E., Dubreuil, M. E., Gordon, A., & Brown, R. A. (2011). Exercise preferences of patients in substance abuse treatment. Mental health and physical activity, 4(2), 79-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2011.08.002
Adrian, M., & Barry, S. J. (2003). Physical and mental health problems associated with the use of alcohol and drugs. Substance use & misuse, 38(11-13), 1575-1614. https://doi.org/10.1081/ja-120024230
American College of Sports Medicine (2018). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (10th ed). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.
Beasley, M., Thompson, & Davidson, J. (2003). Resilience in response to life stress: The effects of coping style and cognitive hardiness. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 77-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0191-8869(02)00027-2
Campbell‐Sills, L., & Stein, M. B. (2007). Psychometric analysis and refinement of the connor–davidson resilience scale (CD‐RISC): Validation of a 10‐item measure of resilience. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(6), 1019-1028. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20271
Carek, P. J., Laibstain, S. E., & Carek, S. M. (2011). Exercise for the treatment of depression and anxiety. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 41(1), 15-28. https://doi.org/10.2190/pm.41.1.c
Cheetham, A., Allen, N. B., Yücel, M., & Lubman, D. I. (2010). The role of affective dysregulation in drug addiction. Clinical psychology review, 30(6), 621-634. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.04.005
Coalter, F. (2005). Sport, social inclusion and crime reduction. In G. Faulkner, & A. H. Taylor (Eds.), Exercise health and mental health (pp. 190–209). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203415016_chapter_10
Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological bulletin, 112(1), 155.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011). Research Methods in Education (7th edition). Oxford, UK: Routledge.
Daley, A. (2008). Exercise and depression: a review of reviews. Journal of clinical psychology in medical settings, 15(2), 140.
Di Fabio, A., & Palazzeschi, L. (2012). Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale: Proprietà psicometriche della versione italiana [Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale: Psychometric Properties of the Italian Version]. Counsel. Giornale Italiano Ricerca Applicazioni, 5, 101-110. https://doi.org/10.1037/t38872-000
Donaghy M. E., & Ussher, M. H. (2005). Exercise interventions in drug and alcohol rehabilitation. In Exercise, health and mental health (pp. 66-87). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203415016_chapter_4
Dua, J., & Hargreaves, L. (1992). Effect of aerobic exercise on negative affect, positive affect, stress, and depression. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75(2), 355-361. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1922.214.171.1245
Duncan, P. W., Weiner, D. K., Chandler, J., & Studenski, S. (1990). Functional reach: a new clinical measure of balance. Journal of gerontology, 45(6), M192-M197. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronj/45.6.m192
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). (2018). Statistical Bulletin 2018 — prevalence of drug use. Retrieved from http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/data/stats2018/gps
Faulkner, G. E., Adlaf, E. M., Irving, H. M., Allison, K. R., Dwyer, J. J., & Goodman, J. (2007). The relationship between vigorous physical activity and juvenile delinquency: A mediating role for self-esteem? Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30(2), 155–163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-006-9091-2
Fischetti, F., & Greco, G. (2017). Multilateral methods in Physical Education improve physical capacity and motor skills performance of the youth. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(3), 2160-2168.
Gibson, A. L., Wagner, D., & Heyward, V. (2018). Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription, 8th Ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Greenwood, B. N., & Fleshner, M. (2011). Exercise, stress resistance, and central serotonergic systems. Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 39(3), 140. https://doi.org/10.1097/jes.0b013e31821f7e45
Greenwood, B. N., Foley, T. E., Le, T. V., Strong, P. V., Loughridge, A. B., Day, H. E., & Fleshner, M. (2011). Long-term voluntary wheel running is rewarding and produces plasticity in the mesolimbic reward pathway. Behavioural brain research, 217(2), 354-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2010.11.005
Grotberg, E. H. (1995). A guide to promoting resilience in children: Strengthening the human spirit. Early Childhood Development: Practice and Reﬂections, 8. Netherlands: Bernard van Leer Foundation.
Hobson, M. L., & Rejeski, W. J. (1993). Does the dose of acute exercise mediate psychophysiological responses to mental stress? Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15(1), 77-87. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.15.1.77
Hoffman, M. D., & Hoffman, D. R. (2008). Exercisers achieve greater acute exercise-induced mood enhancement than nonexercisers. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 89(2), 358-363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2007.09.026
Korhonen, T., Kujala, U. M., Rose, R. J., & Kaprio, J. (2009). Physical activity in adolescence as a predictor of alcohol and illicit drug use in early adulthood: a longitudinal population-based twin study. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 12(3), 261-268. https://doi.org/10.1375/twin.12.3.261
Lavie, C. J., Milani, R. V., O'Keefe, J. H., & Lavie, T. J. (2011). Impact of exercise training on psychological risk factors. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 53(6), 464-470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2011.03.007
MacRae, P. G., Spirduso, W. W., Cartee, G. D., Farrar, R. P., & Wilcox, R. E. (1987). Endurance training effects on striatal D2 dopamine receptor binding and striatal dopamine metabolite levels. Neuroscience letters, 79(1-2), 138-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(87)90686-0
Marcus, B. H., & Owen, N. (1992). Motivational Readiness, Self‐Efficacy and Decision‐Making for Exercise 1. Journal of applied social psychology, 22(1), 3-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1992.tb01518.x
McCormick, B. T. (2014). The reliability and validity of various lateral side-step tests. International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, 26(2), 67-75. https://doi.org/10.24985/ijass.2014.26.2.67
McCurdy, K., & Langford, G. (2006). The relationship between maximum unilateral squat strength and balance in young adult men and women. Journal of sports science & medicine, 5(2), 282.
McLellan, A. T., Lewis, D. C., O'brien, C. P., & Kleber, H. D. (2000). Drug dependence, a chronic medical illness: implications for treatment, insurance, and outcomes evaluation. Jama, 284(13), 1689-1695. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.284.13.1689
Neale, J. (2006). Social exclusion, drugs and policy. In: Hughes R (ed.). Drugs, policy and politics. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill/Open University Press.
Puetz, T. W., O'connor, P. J., & Dishman, R. K. (2006). Effects of chronic exercise on feelings of energy and fatigue: a quantitative synthesis. Psychological bulletin, 132(6), 866. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.6.866
Ramo, D. E., & Brown, S. A. (2008). Classes of substance abuse relapse situations: a comparison of adolescents and adults. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22(3), 372. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-164x.22.3.372
Read, J. P., Brown, R. A., Marcus, B. H., Kahler, C. W., Ramsey, S. E., Dubreuil, M. E., ... & Francione, C. (2001). Exercise attitudes and behaviors among persons in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 21(4), 199-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0740-5472(01)00203-3
Rice, V., & Liu, B. (2016). Personal resilience and coping with implications for work. Part I: A review. Work, 54(2), 325-333.
Salmon, P. (2001). Effects of physical exercise on anxiety, depression, and sensitivity to stress: a unifying theory. Clinical psychology review, 21(1), 33-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0272-7358(99)00032-x
Schuckit, M. A. (2006). Comorbidity between substance use disorders and psychiatric conditions. Addiction, 101, 76-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01592.x
Sica, C., Magni, C., Ghisi, M., Altoè, G., Sighinolfi, C., Chiri, L. R., & Franceschini, S. (2008). Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced-Nuova Versione Italiana (COPE-NVI): uno strumento per la misura degli stili di coping. Psicoterapia cognitiva e comportamentale, 14(1), 27. https://doi.org/10.3280/pds2015-002007
Smith, M. A., & Lynch, W. J. (2012). Exercise as a potential treatment for drug abuse: evidence from preclinical studies. Frontiers in psychiatry, 2, 82. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2011.00082
Ströhle, A. (2009). Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders. Journal of neural transmission, 116(6), 777. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00702-008-0092-x
Ströhle, A., Hoefler, M., Pfister, H., Mueller, A. G., Hoyer, J., Wittchen, H. U., & Lieb, R. (2007). Physical activity and prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in adolescents and young adults. Psychological medicine, 37(11), 1657-1666. https://doi.org/10.1017/s003329170700089x
Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of personality and social psychology, 86(2), 320-333. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1990
Weinstock, J., Barry, D., & Petry, N. M. (2008). Exercise-related activities are associated with positive outcome in contingency management treatment for substance use disorders. Addictive behaviors, 33(8), 1072-1075. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.03.011
Williams, D. J. (2000). Exercise and substance abuse treatment: predicting program completion. Corrections Compendium, 25(25), 4-7.
Williams, D. M. (2008). Exercise, affect, and adherence: an integrated model and a case for self-paced exercise. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30(5), 471-496. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.30.5.471
Woodard, C. M., & Berry, M. J. (2001). Enhancing adherence to prescribed exercise: structured behavioral interventions in clinical exercise programs. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 21(4), 201-209. https://doi.org/10.1097/00008483-200107000-00002
License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/