Temporal increase in muscle cross-sectional area as an acute effect of resistance exercise in resistance-trained and untrained individuals


  • Masahiro Goto Aino Universiy, Japan https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3727-4489
  • Hitoshi Kumada Aino University, Japan
  • Chikako Maeda Aino University, Japan
  • Yoshihiro Yamashina Aino University, Japan
  • Yosuke Yamato Aino University, Japan
  • Hiroto Honda Aino University, Japan
  • Hiroki Aoyama Aino University, Japan
  • Takafumi Hamaoka Tokyo Medical University, Japan




Muscle hypertrophy, Oxygenated haemoglobin, Hypoxia, Intramuscular hydration, Muscle pump


The purpose of this study was to compare the temporal increase in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) as the acute response of resistance exercise (RE) between resistance-trained and untrained groups and investigate the factors that affect the muscle CSA. Resistance-trained (n = 14) and untrained (n = 14) subjects performed four kinds of triceps brachii RE. Muscle CSA and intracellular hydration (IH), were measured prior to and 5-, 30-, and 60-minute after RE. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to clarify the relationships among percent increases in muscle CSA and IH, area under the Oyx-Hb curve, blood lactate concentration, and % maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)-root-mean-square (RMS) of electromyogram (EMG). At 5-minute after RE, muscle CSA increased significantly to 120.2 ± 6.3% in the resistance-trained group and 105.5 ± 2.3% in the untrained group (p < .01). However, neither group showed a significant difference between the values before and 30-minute after RE. In the resistance-trained group, there was a significant increase in IH at 5-minute post-RH (p < .01), and correlations were found between percent increases in muscle CSA and IH (r = 0.70, p < .01), area under the Oxy-Hb curve (r = 0.77, p < .01), and % MVC-RMS of EMG (r = 0.72, p < .01). The findings of this study suggest that measurements of muscle CSA in studies of muscle hypertrophy should be performed 30-minute or more after the last resistance exercise session, and muscle pump exercises should be conducted just before participation in bodybuilding, and physique contests.


Download data is not yet available.


Adams GR, Harris RT, Woodard D, Dudley GA. (1985). Mapping of electrical muscle stimulation using MRI. J Appl Physiol, 74(2), 532-537. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1993.74.2.532

Akagi R, Kanehisa H, Kawakami Y, Fukunaga T. (2008). Establishing a new index of muscle cross-sectional area and its relationship with isometric muscle strength. J Strength Cond Res, 22(1), 82-87. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e31815ef675

Bae SY, Hamaoka T, Katsumura T, Shiga T, Ohno H, Haga S. (2000). Comparison of muscle oxygen consumption measured by near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy during supramaximal and intermittent pedalling exercise. Int J Sports Med, 21(3), 168-174. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-8880

Chance B, Dait MT, Zhang C, Hamaoka T, Hagerman F. (1992). Recovery from exercise-induced desaturation in the quadriceps muscles of elite competitive rowers. Am J Physiol, 262(3 Pt 1), C766-75. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.1992.262.3.c766

Cheema BS, Vizza L, Swaraj S. (2014). Progressive resistance training in polycystic ovary syndrome: can pumping iron improve clinical outcomes?. Sports Med, 44(9), 1197-1207. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0206-6

Cohen J. (1988). Analysis of variance and covariance. In: Stastical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Science. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 273-406.

Fink J, Schoenfeld BJ, Kikuchi N, Nakazato K. (2017). Effects of drop set resistance training on acute stress indicators and long-term muscle hypertrophy and strength. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 58(5), 597-605. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.17.06838-4

Frigeri A, Nicchia GP, Verbavatz JM, Valenti G, Svelto M. (1998). Expression of aquaporin-4 in fast-twitch fibers of mammalian skeletal muscle. J Clin Invest, 102(4), 695-703. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci2545

Goto M, Maeda C, Hirayama T, Terada S, Nirengi S, Kurosawa Y, Nagano A, Hamaoka T. (2019). Partial range of motion exercise is effective for facilitating muscle hypertrophy and function through sustained intramuscular hypoxia in young trained men. J Strength Cond Res, 33(5), 1286-1294. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002051

Goto M, Nirengi S, Kurosawa Y, Nagano A, Hamaoka T. (2016). Effects of the Drop-set and Reverse Drop-set Methods on the Muscle Activity and Intramuscular Oxygenation of the Triceps Brachii among Trained and Untrained Individuals. J Sports Sci Med, 15(4), 562-568. PMC5131208.

Hamaoka T, McCully KK, Quaresima V, Yamamoto K, Chance B. (2007). Near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging for monitoring muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism in healthy and diseased humans. J Biomed Opt, 12(6), 062105. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.2805437

Häussinger D, Lang F, Gerok W. (1994). Regulation of cell function by the cellular hydration state. Am J Physiol, 267(3 Pt 1), E343-55. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.1994.267.3.e343

Hermens HJ, Freriks B, Disselhorst-Klug C, Rau G. (2000). Development of recommendations for SEMG sensors and sensor placement procedures. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 10(5), 361-374. PMID:11018445. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1050-6411(00)00027-4

Lang F, Busch GL, Ritter M, Völkl H, Waldegger S, Gulbins E, Häussinger D. (1998). Functional significance of cell volume regulatory mechanisms. Physiol Rev, 78(1), 247-306. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.1998.78.1.247

MacDougall JD, Ward GR, Sale DG, Sutton JR. (1977). Biochemical adaptation of human skeletal muscle to heavy resistance training and immobilization. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol, 43(4), 700-703. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1977.43.4.700

Maehlum S, Grandmontagne M, Newsholme EA, Sejersted OM. (1986). Magnitude and duration of excess postexercise oxygen consumption in healthy young subjects. Metabolism, 35(5), 425-429. PMID: 3517556. https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495(86)90132-0

Manfredini F, Lamberti N, Malagoni AM, Zambon C, Basaglia N, Mascoli F, Manfredini R, Zamboni P. (2015). Reliability of the vascular claudication reporting in diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease: a study with near-infrared spectroscopy. Angiology, 66(4), 365-374. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003319714534762

McCall GE, Byrnes WC, Dickinson A, Pattany PM, Fleck SJ. (1996). Muscle fiber hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and capillary density in college men after resistance training. J Appl Physiol, 81(5), 2004-2012. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1996.81.5.2004

Powers SK, Talbert EE, Adhihetty PJ. (2011). Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as intracellular signals in skeletal muscle. J Physiol, 589(Pt 9), 2129-2138. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2010.201327

Schoenfeld BJ. (2010). The mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to resistance training. J Strength Cond Res, 24(10), 2857-2872. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181e840f3

Schoenfeld BJ.. (2013). Potential mechanisms for a role of metabolic stress in hypertrophic adaptations to resistance training. Sports Med, 43(3), 179-194. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0017-1

Sjogaard G. (1986). Water and electrolyte fluxes during exercise and their relation to muscle fatigue. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl, 556, 129-136. PMID:3471050.

Smith JW, Krings BM, Peterson TJ, Rountree JA, Zak RB, McAllister MJ. (2017). Ingestion of an Amino Acid Electrolyte Beverage during Resistance Exercise Does Not Impact Fluid Shifts into Muscle or Performance. Sports (Basel), 5(2), pii: E36. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5020036

Vieira A, Blazevich A, Souza N, Celes R, Alex S, Tufano JJ, Bottaro M. (2018). Acute changes in muscle thickness and pennation angle in response to work-matched concentric and eccentric isokinetic exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 43(10), 1069-1074. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2018-0055

Wilson JM, Lowery RP, Joy JM, Loenneke JP, Naimo MA. (2013). Practical blood flow restriction training increases acute determinants of hypertrophy without increasing indices of muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res, 27(11), 3068-3075. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e31828a1ffa

Zhang Z, Wang B, Gong H, Xu G, Nioka S, Chance B. (2010). Comparisons of muscle oxygenation changes between arm and leg muscles during incremental rowing exercise with near-infrared spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt, 15(1), 017007. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.3309741


Statistics RUA



How to Cite

Goto, M., Kumada, H., Maeda, C., Yamashina, Y., Yamato, Y., Honda, H., Aoyama, H., & Hamaoka, T. (2020). Temporal increase in muscle cross-sectional area as an acute effect of resistance exercise in resistance-trained and untrained individuals. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 15(2), 457–469. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2020.152.19



Sport Medicine, Nutrition & Health