Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Temporal increase in muscle cross-sectional area as an acute effect of resistance exercise in resistance-trained and untrained individuals

Masahiro Goto, Hitoshi Kumada, Chikako Maeda, Yoshihiro Yamashina, Yosuke Yamato, Hiroto Honda, Hiroki Aoyama, Takafumi Hamaoka



The purpose of this study was to compare the temporal increase in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) as the acute response of resistance exercise (RE) between resistance-trained and untrained groups and investigate the factors that affect the muscle CSA. Resistance-trained (n = 14) and untrained (n = 14) subjects performed four kinds of triceps brachii RE. Muscle CSA and intracellular hydration (IH), were measured prior to and 5-, 30-, and 60-minute after RE. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to clarify the relationships among percent increases in muscle CSA and IH, area under the Oyx-Hb curve, blood lactate concentration, and % maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)-root-mean-square (RMS) of electromyogram (EMG). At 5-minute after RE, muscle CSA increased significantly to 120.2 ± 6.3% in the resistance-trained group and 105.5 ± 2.3% in the untrained group (p < .01). However, neither group showed a significant difference between the values before and 30-minute after RE. In the resistance-trained group, there was a significant increase in IH at 5-minute post-RH (p < .01), and correlations were found between percent increases in muscle CSA and IH (r = 0.70, p < .01), area under the Oxy-Hb curve (r = 0.77, p < .01), and % MVC-RMS of EMG (r = 0.72, p < .01). The findings of this study suggest that measurements of muscle CSA in studies of muscle hypertrophy should be performed 30-minute or more after the last resistance exercise session, and muscle pump exercises should be conducted just before participation in bodybuilding, and physique contests.


Muscle hypertrophy; Oxygenated haemoglobin; Hypoxia; Intramuscular hydration; Muscle pump


Adams GR, Harris RT, Woodard D, Dudley GA. (1985). Mapping of electrical muscle stimulation using MRI. J Appl Physiol, 74(2), 532-537.

Akagi R, Kanehisa H, Kawakami Y, Fukunaga T. (2008). Establishing a new index of muscle cross-sectional area and its relationship with isometric muscle strength. J Strength Cond Res, 22(1), 82-87.

Bae SY, Hamaoka T, Katsumura T, Shiga T, Ohno H, Haga S. (2000). Comparison of muscle oxygen consumption measured by near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy during supramaximal and intermittent pedalling exercise. Int J Sports Med, 21(3), 168-174.

Chance B, Dait MT, Zhang C, Hamaoka T, Hagerman F. (1992). Recovery from exercise-induced desaturation in the quadriceps muscles of elite competitive rowers. Am J Physiol, 262(3 Pt 1), C766-75.

Cheema BS, Vizza L, Swaraj S. (2014). Progressive resistance training in polycystic ovary syndrome: can pumping iron improve clinical outcomes?. Sports Med, 44(9), 1197-1207.

Cohen J. (1988). Analysis of variance and covariance. In: Stastical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Science. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 273-406.

Fink J, Schoenfeld BJ, Kikuchi N, Nakazato K. (2017). Effects of drop set resistance training on acute stress indicators and long-term muscle hypertrophy and strength. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 58(5), 597-605.

Frigeri A, Nicchia GP, Verbavatz JM, Valenti G, Svelto M. (1998). Expression of aquaporin-4 in fast-twitch fibers of mammalian skeletal muscle. J Clin Invest, 102(4), 695-703.

Goto M, Maeda C, Hirayama T, Terada S, Nirengi S, Kurosawa Y, Nagano A, Hamaoka T. (2019). Partial range of motion exercise is effective for facilitating muscle hypertrophy and function through sustained intramuscular hypoxia in young trained men. J Strength Cond Res, 33(5), 1286-1294.

Goto M, Nirengi S, Kurosawa Y, Nagano A, Hamaoka T. (2016). Effects of the Drop-set and Reverse Drop-set Methods on the Muscle Activity and Intramuscular Oxygenation of the Triceps Brachii among Trained and Untrained Individuals. J Sports Sci Med, 15(4), 562-568. PMC5131208.

Hamaoka T, McCully KK, Quaresima V, Yamamoto K, Chance B. (2007). Near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging for monitoring muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism in healthy and diseased humans. J Biomed Opt, 12(6), 062105.

Häussinger D, Lang F, Gerok W. (1994). Regulation of cell function by the cellular hydration state. Am J Physiol, 267(3 Pt 1), E343-55.

Hermens HJ, Freriks B, Disselhorst-Klug C, Rau G. (2000). Development of recommendations for SEMG sensors and sensor placement procedures. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 10(5), 361-374. PMID:11018445.

Lang F, Busch GL, Ritter M, Völkl H, Waldegger S, Gulbins E, Häussinger D. (1998). Functional significance of cell volume regulatory mechanisms. Physiol Rev, 78(1), 247-306.

MacDougall JD, Ward GR, Sale DG, Sutton JR. (1977). Biochemical adaptation of human skeletal muscle to heavy resistance training and immobilization. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol, 43(4), 700-703.

Maehlum S, Grandmontagne M, Newsholme EA, Sejersted OM. (1986). Magnitude and duration of excess postexercise oxygen consumption in healthy young subjects. Metabolism, 35(5), 425-429. PMID: 3517556.

Manfredini F, Lamberti N, Malagoni AM, Zambon C, Basaglia N, Mascoli F, Manfredini R, Zamboni P. (2015). Reliability of the vascular claudication reporting in diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease: a study with near-infrared spectroscopy. Angiology, 66(4), 365-374.

McCall GE, Byrnes WC, Dickinson A, Pattany PM, Fleck SJ. (1996). Muscle fiber hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and capillary density in college men after resistance training. J Appl Physiol, 81(5), 2004-2012.

Powers SK, Talbert EE, Adhihetty PJ. (2011). Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as intracellular signals in skeletal muscle. J Physiol, 589(Pt 9), 2129-2138.

Schoenfeld BJ. (2010). The mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to resistance training. J Strength Cond Res, 24(10), 2857-2872.

Schoenfeld BJ.. (2013). Potential mechanisms for a role of metabolic stress in hypertrophic adaptations to resistance training. Sports Med, 43(3), 179-194.

Sjogaard G. (1986). Water and electrolyte fluxes during exercise and their relation to muscle fatigue. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl, 556, 129-136. PMID:3471050.

Smith JW, Krings BM, Peterson TJ, Rountree JA, Zak RB, McAllister MJ. (2017). Ingestion of an Amino Acid Electrolyte Beverage during Resistance Exercise Does Not Impact Fluid Shifts into Muscle or Performance. Sports (Basel), 5(2), pii: E36.

Vieira A, Blazevich A, Souza N, Celes R, Alex S, Tufano JJ, Bottaro M. (2018). Acute changes in muscle thickness and pennation angle in response to work-matched concentric and eccentric isokinetic exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 43(10), 1069-1074.

Wilson JM, Lowery RP, Joy JM, Loenneke JP, Naimo MA. (2013). Practical blood flow restriction training increases acute determinants of hypertrophy without increasing indices of muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res, 27(11), 3068-3075.

Zhang Z, Wang B, Gong H, Xu G, Nioka S, Chance B. (2010). Comparisons of muscle oxygenation changes between arm and leg muscles during incremental rowing exercise with near-infrared spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt, 15(1), 017007.


Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.