Offensive and defensive efficacy among male and female elite foil fencers
Keywords:Fencing, Tactics, Technique, Points, Actual actions, Sports performance
AbstractFencing is a combat sport, where beyond physical and physiological demands, strategy and tactics are crucial factors in order to identify fencers’ performance. Fencers’ tactical movements can be separated in preparatory actions and final actual offensive (attacks) and defensive (parries and counterattacks) actions. The aim of this study is to analyse the tactical choices of elite male and female qualifiers foil fencers in finals and semi-finals bouts of the 2016-17 FIE (International Fencing Federation) competitions. Attacking and defending points were recorded, compared with the type of point, the section thrusts were landed and the time period they were noted. The present study revealed significant difference between offensive and defensive efficacy in both male (p < .003) and female fencers (p = .019). Male fencers showed greater activation than women (p = .003), finishing their bouts much earlier (p = .000), since they needed less time to accomplish an actual action (p = .001). In conclusion, male could be characterized as ‘’permanently pressing’’ fencers, while female adopted a ‘’manoeuvring-attacking’’ style, since male fencers had greater percentage of total actions on the middle section of the piste (p = .011) and female fencers had greater number of defending actions on the back section (p = .033), respectively.
Aquili, A, Tancredi, V, Triossi, T, De Sanctis, D, Padua, E, D’Arcangelo, G, Melchiorri, G. (2013). Performance analysis in saber. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 27: 624–630. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e318257803f
Barth, B, Beck, E. The complete guide to fencing. Oxford: Meyer & Meyer Sport (UK) Ltd.; 2007.
Cronin, J, McNair, PJ, Marshall, RN. (2003). The effects of bungy weight training on muscle function and functional performance. Journal of Sports Science, 21: 59-71. https://doi.org/10.1080/0264041031000071001
Czajkowski, Z. (2001). Theory, practice and methodology in fencing. Chosen aspects. Wydawnicto Akademii Wychowania Fizyczengo w Katowicach.
Czajkowski, Z. (2005). Understanding Fencing. The Unity of Theory and Practice. SKA Swordplay Books.
Czajkowski, Z. (2009). Tactics in fencing – preparatory actions. Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism, 16, 4: 371-377.
Ergen, E, Sardell, F, Dal Monte, A. (1984). The relationship of maximum alactic anaerobic power to somatotype in trained subjects. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 19, 4: 221-223. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.19.4.221
FIE (International Fencing Federation) Rules. (2018). Available at: https://fie.org/fie/documents/rules
Lavoie, JM, Leger, L, Pitre, R, Marini, JF. (1985). Competitions d’escrime. Ipie. Analyses des durees et distances de displacement. Medecine du Sport, 59: 279-283.
Pignotti, U, Pessina, G. (1970). Sabre. Rome: Central School of Sport. C.O.N.I., Italian Fencing Federation.
Roi, GS, Bianchedi, D. (2008). The Science of Fencing. Sports Medicine, 38: 465-481. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838060-00003
Roi, GS, Toran, G, Fiore, A, Bressan, A, Gatti, G, Ipittaluga, I, Maserati, A, Rampinini, E, Lariviere, G. (2001). Performance model in modern fencing, in Scuola dello Sport. 20: 12–19.
Szabo, L. Fencing and the Master. Budapest: Franklin Printing House. 1st ed. 1982.
Tsolakis, C, Douvis, A, Tsigganos, G, Zacharogiannis, E, Smirniotou, A. (2010). Acute effects of stretching on flexibility, power and sport specific performance in fencers. Journal of Human Kinetics, 26: 105–114.
Tsolakis, C., Bogdanis, C., Nikolaou, A, Zacharogiannis, E. (2011). Influence of type of muscle contraction and gender on postactivation potentiation of upper and lower limb explosive performance in elite fencers. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 10: 577-583.
Turner, A., Miller, S, Stewart, P, Cree, J, Ingram, R, Dimitriou, L, Moody, J, Kilduff, L. (2013). Strength and conditioning for fencing. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 35: 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1519/ssc.0b013e31826e7283
Williams LR, Walmsley A. (2000). Response amendment in fencing: differences between elite and novice subjects. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91: 131–142. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.2000.91.1.131
Wojciechowski, Z. Theory, Methods and Exercises in Fencing. 1st ed. 1993.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.