Predictors of long-distance race performance in master runners

Emma J. Lee, Eric M. Snyder, Christopher J. Lundstrom

Abstract

Peak aerobic power (V ̇O2peak) and parameters related to training are associated with long-distance running performance in master athletes. Running economy (RE) predicts performance in younger runners, but its relationship to racing ability in older athletes is unclear. Allometrically scaled RE (alloV ̇O2; ml kg-0.66 min-1), energy cost (EC; kcal kg-1 km-1), and percent of V ̇O2peak (%V ̇O2peak) required in a submaximal bout represent RE more accurately than V ̇O2 does. The VDOT score, estimating V ̇O2peak and RE, can be used to compare races of different distances. Purpose: To determine predictors of temperature-converted VDOT in master runners training for a long-distance race (10-26.2 mi). Methods: Twenty-three master runners (age 57±9 years; eight females) performed treadmill marathon-intensity-effort (MIE) and V ̇O2peak tests within four weeks of their goal race. The MIE occurred at 88% of predicted maximum heart rate, which corresponds to estimated marathon intensity. Participants completed online training-history surveys. Forward stepwise multiple linear regression was used to find key predictors of VDOT. The alpha level for significance was 0.05. Results: Converted VDOT was significantly associated with 3-year peak weekly training distance (3YP) (r = 0.454, p = 0.039), V ̇O2peak (r = 0.845, p = 0.000), alloV ̇O2 (r = 0.623, p = 0.005), and EC (r = -0.528, p = 0.018). The best-fitting model included V ̇O2peak and 3YP (r = 0.898). Conclusion: Physiological and training factors are related to race performance in master runners. The best predictors of VDOT are V ̇O2peak and 3YP. Training to enhance these variables may improve distance-running performance in masters.


Keywords

VO2peak; Running economy; Training

References

Barnes, K. R., & Kilding, A. E. (2015). Running economy: measurement, norms, and determining factors. Sports Medicine-Open, 1(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-015-0007-y

Basset, D. R., Jr. , & Howley, E. T. (2000). Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32(1), 70. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200001000-00012

Berg, K. (2003). Endurance Training and Performance in Runners. Sports Medicine, 33(1), 59-73. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333010-00005

Borg, G. A., & Noble, B. J. (1974). Perceived exertion. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 2(1), 131-154. https://doi.org/10.1249/00003677-197400020-00006

Braun, W. A., & Paulson, S. (2012). The Effects of a Downhill Running Bout on Running Economy. Research in Sports Medicine, 20(3), 274-285. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2012.697084

Brisswalter, J., & Nosaka, K. (2013). Neuromuscular Factors Associated with Decline in Long-Distance Running Performance in Master Athletes. Sports Medicine, 43(1), 51-63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-012-0006-9

Brisswalter, J., Wu, S. S. X., Sultana, F., Bernard, T., & Abbiss, C. R. (2014). Age difference in efficiency of locomotion and maximal power output in well-trained triathletes. European journal of applied physiology, 114(12), 2579-2586. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-014-2977-8

Cavagna, G. A., Legramandi, M. A., & Peyré-Tartaruga, L. A. (2008). Old Men Running: Mechanical Work and Elastic Bounce. Proceedings: Biological Sciences, 275(1633), 411-418. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2007.1288

Cheuvront, S. N., & Haymes, E. M. (2001). Thermoregulation and Marathon Running. Sports Medicine, 31(10), 743-762. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200131100-00004

Costill, D. L., Thomason, H., & Roberts, E. (1973). Fractional utilization of the aerobic capacity during distance running. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 5(4), 248-252. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-197300540-00007

Coyle, E. F. (2007). Physiological Regulation of Marathon Performance. Sports Medicine, 37(4), 306-311. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200737040-00009

Daniels, J. (2014). Daniels's Running Formula. In T. Hanlon, C. Marty, & T. Wolpert (Eds.), Daniels' Running Formula (3rd ed., pp. 77-104). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Daniels, J., & Gilbert, J. (1979). Oxygen power: Performance tables for distance runners. Tempe, Arizona.

Dehn, M. M., & Bruce, R. A. (1972). Longitudinal variations in maximal oxygen intake with age and activity. Journal of applied physiology, 33(6), 805-807. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1972.33.6.805

Dill, D. B., Robinson, S., & Ross, J. C. (1967). A longitudinal study of 16 champion runners. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 7(1), 4-27.

El Helou, N., Tafflet, M., Berthelot, G., Tolaini, J., Marc, A., Guillaume, M., . . . Toussaint, J.-F. (2012). Impact of Environmental Parameters on Marathon Running Performance. PLoS ONE, 7(5), e37407. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037407

Eskurza, I., Donato, A. J., Moreau, K. L., Seals, D. R., & Tanaka, H. (2002). Changes in maximal aerobic capacity with age in endurance-trained women: 7-yr follow-up. Journal of applied physiology, 92(6), 2303. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01124.2001

Evans, S. L., Davy, K. P., Stevenson, E. T., Reiling, M. J., & Seals, D. R. (1995). Physiological Determinants Of 10 Km Performance In Competitive Female Distance Runners Of Different Ages. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 27(5), S236. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199505001-01326

Evans, S. L., Davy, K. P., Stevenson, E. T., & Seals, D. R. (1995). Physiological determinants of 10-km performance in highly trained female runners of different ages. Journal of applied physiology, 78(5), 1931. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1995.78.5.1931

Foster, C. (1983). VO2 max and training indices as determinants of competitive running performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1(1), 13-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640418308729657

Holloszy, J. O., Rennie, M. J., Hickson, R. C., Conlee, R. K., & Hagberg, J. M. (1977). Physiological consequences of the biochemical adaptations to endurance exercise. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 301(1), 440-450. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1977.tb38220.x

Joyner, M. J. (1993). Physiological Limiting Factors and Distance Running: Influence of Gender and Age on Record Performances. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 21(1), 103-134. https://doi.org/10.1249/00003677-199301000-00004

Joyner, M. J., & Coyle, E. F. (2008). Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions. The Journal of Physiology, 586(1), 35-44. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2007.143834

Lepers, R., & Cattagni, T. (2012). Do older athletes reach limits in their performance during marathon running? AGE, 34(3), 773-781. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-011-9271-z

Lepers, R., & Stapley, P. J. (2016). Master Athletes Are Extending the Limits of Human Endurance. Frontiers in Physiology, 7, 613. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2016.00613

Londeree, B. R., Thomas, T. R., Ziogas, G., Smith, T. D., & Zhang, Q. (1995). %VO2max versus %HRmax regressions for six modes of exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 27(3), 458-461. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199503000-00025

Morgan, D. W., Bransford, D. R., Costill, D. L., Daniels, J., Howley, E. T., & Krahenbuhl, G. S. (1995). Variation in the aerobic demand of running among trained and untrained subjects. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 27(3), 404-409. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199503000-00017

Noakes, T. D. (1988). Implications of exercise testing for prediction of athletic performance: a contemporary perspective. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 20(4), 319-330. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198808000-00001

Péronnet, F., & Massicotte, D. (1991). Table of nonprotein respiratory quotient: an update. Can J Sport Sci, 16(1), 23-29.

Pimentel, A. E., Gentile, C. L., Tanaka, H., Seals, D. R., & Gates, P. E. (2003). Greater rate of decline in maximal aerobic capacity with age in endurance-trained than in sedentary men. Journal of applied physiology, 94(6), 2406. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00774.2002

Pollock, M. L., Foster, C., Knapp, D., Rod, J. L., & Schmidt, D. H. (1987). Effect of age and training on aerobic capacity and body composition of master athletes. Journal of applied physiology, 62(2), 725. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1987.62.2.725

Pollock, M. L., Mengelkoch, L. J., Graves, J. E., Lowenthal, D. T., Limacher, M. C., Foster, C., & Wilmore, J. H. (1997). Twenty-year follow-up of aerobic power and body composition of older track athletes. Journal of applied physiology, 82(5), 1508. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1997.82.5.1508

Quinn, T. J., Manley, M. J., Aziz, J., Padham, J. L., & MacKenzie, A. M. (2011). Aging and Factors Related to Running Economy. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(11). https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e318212dd0e

Reaburn, P., & Dascombe, B. (2008). Endurance performance in masters athletes. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 5(1), 31-42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11556-008-0029-2

Reed, J. L., & Gibbs, J. C. (2016). Marathon Training: Gender and Age Aspects. In C. Zinner & B. Sperlich (Eds.), Marathon Running: Physiology, Psychology, Nutrition and Training Aspects (pp. 125-152). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29728-6_7

Rogers, M. A., Hagberg, J. M., Martin, W. H., Ehsani, A. A., & Holloszy, J. O. (1990). Decline in VO2max with aging in master athletes and sedentary men. Journal of applied physiology, 68(5), 2195. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1990.68.5.2195

Saunders, P. U., Pyne, D. B., Telford, R. D., & Hawley, J. A. (2004). Factors Affecting Running Economy in Trained Distance Runners. Sports Medicine, 34(7), 465-485. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200434070-00005

Sultana, F., Abbiss, C. R., Louis, J., Bernard, T., Hausswirth, C., & Brisswalter, J. (2012). Age-related changes in cardio-respiratory responses and muscular performance following an Olympic triathlon in well-trained triathletes. European journal of applied physiology, 112(4), 1549-1556. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2115-9

Swain, D. P., Abernathy, K. S., Smith, C. S., Lee, S. J., & Bunn, S. A. (1994). Target heart rates for the development of cardiorespiratory fitness. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 26(1), 112-116. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199401000-00019

Tanaka, H., Desouza, C. A., Jones, P. P., Stevenson, E. T., Davy, K. P., & Seals, D. R. (1997). Greater rate of decline in maximal aerobic capacity with age in physically active vs. sedentary healthy women. Journal of applied physiology, 83(6), 1947. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1997.83.6.1947

Tanaka, H., Monahan, K. D., & Seals, D. R. (2001). Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisited. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 37(1), 153-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0735-1097(00)01054-8

Tanaka, H., & Seals, D. R. (2003). Invited Review: Dynamic exercise performance in Masters athletes: insight into the effects of primary human aging on physiological functional capacity. Journal of applied physiology, 95(5), 2152. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00320.2003

Tanaka, H., & Seals, D. R. (2008). Endurance exercise performance in Masters athletes: age-associated changes and underlying physiological mechanisms. The Journal of Physiology, 586(1), 55-63. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2007.141879

Trappe, S. W., Costill, D. L., Vukovich, M. D., Jones, J., & Melham, T. (1996). Aging among elite distance runners: a 22-yr longitudinal study. Journal of applied physiology, 80(1), 285. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1996.80.1.285

Wiswell, R. A., Hawkins, S. A., Jaque, S. V., Hyslop, D., Constantino, N., Tarpenning, K., . . . Schroeder, E. T. (2001). Relationship Between Physiological Loss, Performance Decrement, and Age in Master Athletes. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 56(10), M618-M626. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/56.10.m618

Wiswell, R. A., Jaque, S. V., Marcell, T. J., Hawkins, S. A., Tarpenning, K. M., Constantino, N., & Hyslop, D. M. (2000). Maximal aerobic power, lactate threshold, and running performance in master athletes. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 32(6), 1165-1170. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200006000-00021




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2020.152.10





License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/