The relationship between isokinetic knee flexion and extension muscle strength, jump performance, dynamic balance and injury risk in female volleyball players




Volleyball, Dynamic balance, Jump performance, Functional movement screen (FMS®), Knee, Isokinetic.


The relationship between balance, knee muscle strength, jump height and risk of injury has not been clearly stated in female volleyball athletes. The study was to determine whether a correlation exists between knee joint isokinetic muscle strength, risk of injury, balance and jump height in female volleyball athletes. Twenty-two female volleyball athletes were involved into the study. Knee muscle strength were evaluated with the Biodex 3® isokinetic dynamometer. Jump performances were evaluated with the countermovement (CMJ) jump test using the Vert Jump® Motion Sensitive Sensor. The injury risk for all players were evaluated by the Functional Movement Screen (FMS®). Balance measurements were performed with a dynamometer Biodex Systems 3® device. There was a significant relationship between CMJ height, knee flexion and extension peak torque and H:Q ratio values at two angular velocities, dynamic balance and total FMS® scores (p < .05). However, contralateral deficit statistically significant were not related between CMJ height, dynamic balance and FMS® scores (p > .05). We suggest that all clinicians and coaches involved in the protective and preventive rehabilitation phase evaluate these parameters and plan their training programs in line with the results obtained in increasing both individual and team performance of athletes.


Download data is not yet available.


Aagaard, P., Simonsen, E. B., Magnusson, S. P., Larsson, B., & Dyhre-Poulsen, P. (1998). A new concept for isokinetic hamstring: quadriceps muscle strength ratio. Am J Sports Med, 26(2), 231-237.

Agostini, V., Chiaramello, E., Canavese, L., Bredariol, C., & Knaflitz, M. (2013). Postural sway in volleyball players. Human movement science, 32(3), 445-456.

Akarçeşme, C., Aktuğ, Z., Aka, H., & Ibis, S. (2017). An investigation of leg and shoulder muscle strength ratios of elite female volleyball players.

Akarçeşme, C., & Aktuğ, Z. B. (2018). The Investigation of The Effect of 14 Weeks Volleyball Training on Isokinetics Knee Muscles Strengths and Dynamic Balance Performance. Inonu University, Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences (IUJPESS), 5(1), 33-40.

Bamaç, B., Çolak, T., Özbek, A., Çolak, S., Cinel, Y., & Yenigün, Ö. (2008). Isokinetic performance in elite volleyball and basketball players. Kinesiology: International journal of fundamental and applied kinesiology, 40(2), 183-189.

Bosco, C., Mognoni, P., & Luhtanen, P. (1983). Relationship between isokinetic performance and ballistic movement. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 51(3), 357-364.

Celebi, M., Akarçeşme, C., & Ekin Dalbayrak, B. (2018). Evaluation of Postural Balance and Hamstring/Quadriceps Peak Torque Ratios According to Leg Dominancy in Turkish Female Volleyball Players (Vol. 53).

Cheung, R. T., Smith, A. W., & Wong del, P. (2012). H:q ratios and bilateral leg strength in college field and court sports players. J Hum Kinet, 33, 63-71.

Clifton, D. R., Harrison, B. C., Hertel, J., & Hart, J. M. (2013). Relationship between functional assessments and exercise-related changes during static balance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27(4), 966-972.

Cook, G., Burton, L., & Hoogenboom, B. (2006a). Pre-participation screening: the use of fundamental movements as an assessment of function–part 1. North American journal of sports physical therapy: NAJSPT, 1(2), 62.

Cook, G., Burton, L., & Hoogenboom, B. (2006b). Pre-participation screening: The use of fundamental movements as an assessment of function–Part 2. North American journal of sports physical therapy: NAJSPT, 1(3), 132.

Çelenk, Ç., Marangoz, İ., Zait, B., Top, E., Akıl, M., & Aktuğ, Z. (2015). The effect of quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscular force on static and dynamic balance performance (Vol. 323).

D'Alessandro, R. L., Silveira, E. A. P., Anjos, M. T. S. d., Silva, A. A. d., & Fonseca, S. T. d. (2005). Análise da associação entre a dinamometria isocinética da articulação do joelho e o salto horizontal unipodal, hop test, em atletas de voleibol. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 11, 271-275.

Erdoğan, C. S., Fatmanur, E., İpekoğlu, G., Çolakoğlu, T., Zorba, E., & Çolakoğlu, F. F. (2017). Farkli denge egzersizlerinin voleybolcularda statik ve dinamik denge performansi üzerine etkileri. Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi, 8(1), 11-18.

Evangelos, B., Georgios, K., Konstantinos, A., Gissis, I., Papadopoulos, C., & Aristomenis, S. (2012). Proprioception and balance training can improve amateur soccer players' technical skills. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 12(1), 81.

Hewett, T. E., Myer, G. D., & Zazulak, B. T. (2008). Hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque ratios diverge between sexes with increasing isokinetic angular velocity. J Sci Med Sport, 11(5), 452-459.

Hrysomallis, C. (2007). Relationship between balance ability, training and sports injury risk. Sports Med, 37(6), 547-556.

Ibis, S., Aktuğ, Z. B., & Iri, R. (2018). Does individual-specific strength training have an effect upon knee muscle strength balances? Knee muscle strength balances. Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions, 18(2), 183.

İbiş, S., İri, R., & Aktuğ, Z. B. (2015). The effect of female volleyball players’ leg volume and mass on balance and reaction time Bayan voleybolcuların bacak hacim ve kütlesinin denge ve reaksiyon zamanına etkisi. Journal of Human Sciences, 12(2), 1296-1308.

Iossifidou, A., Baltzopoulos, V., & Giakas, G. (2005). Isokinetic knee extension and vertical jumping: are they related? J Sports Sci, 23(10), 1121-1127.

Kabacinski, J., Murawa, M., Mackala, K., & Dworak, L. B. (2018). Knee strength ratios in competitive female athletes. PloS one, 13(1), e0191077.

Kim, C. G., & Jeoung, B. J. (2016). Assessment of isokinetic muscle function in Korea male volleyball athletes. J Exerc Rehabil, 12(5), 429-437.

Kong, P. W., & Burns, S. F. (2010). Bilateral difference in hamstrings to quadriceps ratio in healthy males and females. Phys Ther Sport, 11(1), 12-17.

Lakens, D. (2017). Equivalence Tests: A Practical Primer for t Tests, Correlations, and Meta-Analyses. Soc Psychol Personal Sci, 8(4), 355-362.

Laudner, K., Evans, D., Wong, R., Allen, A., Kirsch, T., Long, B., & Meister, K. (2015). Relationship Between Isokinetic Knee Strength and Jump Characteristics Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Int J Sports Phys Ther, 10(3), 272-280.

Li, R. C., Maffulli, N., Hsu, Y. C., & Chan, K. M. (1996). Isokinetic strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings and functional ability of anterior cruciate deficient knees in recreational athletes. Br J Sports Med, 30(2), 161-164.

Lockie, R. G., Schultz, A. B., Jeffriess, M. D., & Callaghan, S. J. (2012). The relationship between bilateral differences of knee flexor and extensor isokinetic strength and multi-directional speed. Isokinetics and exercise science, 20(3), 211-219.

Muehlbauer, T., Gollhofer, A., & Granacher, U. (2015). Associations between measures of balance and lower-extremity muscle strength/power in healthy individuals across the lifespan: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports medicine, 45(12), 1671-1692.

Myers, H., Christopherson, Z., & Butler, R. J. (2018). Relationship between the lower quarter y-balance test scores and isokinetic strength testing in patients status post acl reconstruction. Int J Sports Phys Ther, 13(2), 152-159.

Newton, R. U., Gerber, A., Nimphius, S., Shim, J. K., Doan, B. K., Robertson, M., . . . Kraemer, W. J. (2006). Determination of functional strength imbalance of the lower extremities. J Strength Cond Res, 20(4), 971-977.

Pourheydari, S., Sheikhhoseini, R., & Hosseini, S. G. (2018). Correlation between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) Test with Dynamic Balance and Core Endurance in Male and Female Volleyball Players in Kerman Province. Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, 3(2), 64-69.

Pupo, J. D., Detanico, D., & Santos, S. G. d. (2012). Kinetic parameters as determinants of vertical jump performance. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano, 14(1), 41-51.

Sannicandro, I., Cofano, G., Rosa, R. A., & Piccinno, A. (2014). Balance training exercises decrease lower-limb strength asymmetry in young tennis players. J Sports Sci Med, 13(2), 397-402.

Sattler, T., Sekulic, D., Esco, M. R., Mahmutovic, I., & Hadzic, V. (2015). Analysis of the association between isokinetic knee strength with offensive and defensive jumping capacity in high-level female volleyball athletes. J Sci Med Sport, 18(5), 613-618.

Sattler, T., Sekulic, D., Hadzic, V., Uljevic, O., & Dervisevic, E. (2012). Vertical jumping tests in volleyball: reliability, validity, and playing-position specifics. J Strength Cond Res, 26(6), 1532-1538.

Sattler, T., Sekulic, D., Spasic, M., Osmankac, N., Vicente Joao, P., Dervisevic, E., & Hadzic, V. (2016). Isokinetic knee strength qualities as predictors of jumping performance in high-level volleyball athletes: multiple regression approach. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 56(1-2), 60-69.

Schons, P., Da Rosa, R. G., Fischer, G., Berriel, G. P., Fritsch, C. G., Nakamura, F. Y., . . . Peyre-Tartaruga, L. A. (2018). The relationship between strength asymmetries and jumping performance in professional volleyball players. Sports Biomech, 1-12.

Schons, P., Fischer, G., Rosa, R. G. d., Berriel, G. P., & Peyré-Tartaruga, L. A. (2018). Correlations between the strength of knee extensor and flexor muscles and jump performance in volleyball players: a review. Journal of Physical Education, 29.

Teixeira, J., Carvalho, P., Moreira, C., & Santos, R. (2018). Isokinetic Assessment of Muscle Imbalances and Bilateral Differences between Knee Extensores and Flexores’ Strength in Basketball, Footbal, Handball and Volleyball Athletes.

Testerman, C., & Vander Griend, R. (1999). Evaluation of ankle instability using the Biodex Stability System. Foot Ankle Int, 20(5), 317-321.

Tsiokanos, A., Kellis, E., Jamurtas, A., & Kellis, S. (2002). The relationship between jumping performance and isokinetic strength of hip and knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors. Isokinetics and exercise science, 10(2), 107-115.

Yapici, A., Findikoglu, G., & Dundar, U. (2016). Do isokinetic angular velocity and contraction types affect the predictors of different anaerobic power tests? J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 56(4), 383-391.

Yeung, S. S., Suen, A. M., & Yeung, E. W. (2009). A prospective cohort study of hamstring injuries in competitive sprinters: preseason muscle imbalance as a possible risk factor. Br J Sports Med, 43(8), 589-594.

Yıldız, S. (2018). Relationship between Functional Movement Screen and Athletic Performance in Children Tennis Players (Vol. 6).


Statistics RUA



How to Cite

Soylu, Çağlar, Altundağ, E., Akarçeşme, C., & Ün Yıldırım, N. (2020). The relationship between isokinetic knee flexion and extension muscle strength, jump performance, dynamic balance and injury risk in female volleyball players. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 15(3), 502–514.



Performance Analysis of Sport