Optimal depth jump height quantified as percentage of athlete stature

Curtis L. Tomasevicz, Ryan Hasenkamp, Jack W. Ransone, David Jones

Abstract

Purpose: An individual’s optimal depth jump platform height provides a resistive force which allows an athlete to rebound with substantial velocity resulting in maximum power exertion. The objective of this investigation was to show that the optimal platform height in a depth jump can be quantified as a percentage of individual body stature which can serve as measurable quantified value. Although athlete height is not highly correlated to power ability nor does a universal height exist, this value can provide a basis for a rehabilitation or strength and conditioning program. The desired intensity of a program can be prescribed as a percentage of the individual’s optimal drop height. Methods: Sixteen male participants (age=21.7 ± 1.54 yrs., height=177.7 ± 11.4 cm, mass=77.7 ± 13.6 kg; mean ± SD) were tested in a depth jump through a range of platform heights based on percentage of the individual anthropometric data defined at 0-, 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-, and 50% of the participants’ stature using a 3-D motion capture system (Qualysis) and force plates (Bertec) to calculate power. Results: The optimal drop height was found to be 21.3 (±10.3)% of the participants’ heights for maximum peak power and 27.5 (±15.3)% for maximum average power. Conclusions: These results suggest that an individual optimal drop height does exist as a percentage of stature and could be applied to a rehabilitation or power-based training program using the drop height as a quantified basis allowing an athlete to gradually work toward their individual optimal drop height and exhibit maximum power.

Keywords

Kinematics; Kinetics; Lower extremity assessment; Plyometrics; Power

References

Ashby, B. M., & Delp, S. L. (2006). Optimal control simulations reveal mechanisms by which arm movement improves standing long jump performance. Journal of Biomechanics, 39(9), 1726–1734. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.04.017

Ashby, B. M., & Heegaard, J. H. (2002). Role of arm motion in the standing long jump. Journal of Biomechanics, 35(12), 1631–1637. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9290(02)00239-7

Asmussen, E., & Bonde‐Petersen, F. (1974). Storage of Elastic Energy in Skeletal Muscles in Man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 91(3), 385–392. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1974.tb05693.x

Baechle, T. R., & Earle, R. W. (Eds.). (2008). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (3rd ed.).

Baker, D., Nance, S., & Moore, M. (2001). The Load That Maximizes the Average Mechanical Power Output During Jump Squats in Power-Trained Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 15(151), 92–9792. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200102000-00016

Bobbert, M. F., Huijing, P. A., & van Ingen Schenau, G. J. (1987a). Drop jumping. I. The influence of jumping technique on the biomechanics of jumping. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19(4), 332–338. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198708000-00003

Bobbert, M. F., Huijing, P. A., & van Ingen Schenau, G. J. (1987b). Drop jumping. II. The influence of dropping height on the biomechanics of drop jumping. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198708000-00004

Bobbert, M. F., Mackay, M., Schinkelshoek, D., Huijing, P. A., & van Ingen Schenau, G. J. (1986). Biomechanical analysis of drop and countermovement jumps. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 54(6), 566–573. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00943342

Carlock, J. M., Smith, S. L., Hartman, M. J., Morris, R. T., Ciroslan, D. A., Pierce, K. C., … Stone, M. H. (2004). The Relationship Between Vertical Jump Power Estimates and Weightlifting Ability: A Field-Test Approach. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18(3), 534. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200408000-00025

Cesar, G. M., Tomasevicz, C. L., & Burnfield, J. M. (2016). Frontal plane comparison between drop jump and vertical jump: implications for the assessment of ACL risk of injury. Sports Biomechanics / International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, 3141(June), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2016.1174286

Davies, C. T. M., & Rennie, R. (1968). Human power output. Nature, 217(5130), 770–771. https://doi.org/10.1038/217770a0

Earp, J. E., Joseph, M., Kraemer, W. J., Newton, R. U., Comstock, B. A., Fragala, M. S., … Maresh, C. M. (2010). Lower-body muscle structure and its role in jump performance during squat, countermovement, and depth drop jumps. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(3), 722–729. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181d32c04

Feltner, M. E., Fraschetti, D. J., & Crisp, R. J. (1999). Upper extremity augmentation of lower extremity kinetics during countermovement vertical jumps. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17(March 2015), 449–466. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404199365768

Guillaume, L., Phillip, W., & Tom, T. (2013). Countermovement Jump Height. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(4), 1.

Harman, E. A., Rosenstein, M. T., Frykman, P. N., Rosenstein, R. M., & Kraemer, W. J. (1991). Estimation of Human Power Output from Vertical Jump. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 5(3), 116–120. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-199108000-00002

Jovanonic, M., & Flanagan, E. P. (2014). Researched applications of velocity based strength training. Journal of Austrailan Strength and Conditioning, 22(2), 58–69.

Kuzmits, F. E., & Adams, A. J. (2008). The NFL combine: does it predict performance in the National Football League? Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 22(6), 1721–1727. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e318185f09d

Lazaridis, S. N., Bassa, E. I., Patikas, D., Hatzikotoulas, K., Lazaridis, F. K., & Kotzamanidis, C. M. (2013). Running Head. Computer Science and Communications Dictionary, 25(1), 1509–1509. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.25.1.101

Lees, A., & Fahmi, E. (1994). Optimal drop heights for plyometric training. Ergonomics, 37(1), 141–148. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139408963632

Lees, Adrian, Vanrenterghem, J., & Clercq, D. D. (2004). Understanding how an arm swing enhances performance in the vertical jump. Journal of Biomechanics, 37(12), 1929–1940. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.02.021

Lephart, S. M., Perrin, D. H., Fu, F. H., & Minger, K. (1991). Functional performance tests for the anterior cruciate ligament insufficient athlete. Journal of Athletic Training, 26, 44–50.

Luhtanen, P., & Komi, P. V. (1978). Segmental contribution to forces in vertical jump. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 38(3), 181–188. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00430076

Mackala, K., Stodolka, J., Siemienski, A., & Coh, M. (2013). Biomechanical analysis of squat jump and countermovement jump from varying starting positions. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(10), 2650–2661. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e31828909ec

Mann, B. (2013). Developing Explosive Athletes: Use of Velocity Based training in Training Athletes. E-Book, 22–26.

Mann, J. B., Ivey, P. A., & Sayers, S. P. (2015). Velocity-Based Training in Football. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 37(6), 52–57. https://doi.org/10.1519/ssc.0000000000000177

Markovic, G., & Jaric, S. (2007). Is vertical jump height a body size-independent measure of muscle power? Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(12), 1355–1363. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410601021713

McBride, J. M., Triplett-McBride, T., Davie, A., & Newton, R. U. (1999). A Comparison of Strength and Power Characteristics Between Power Lifters, Olympic Lifters, and Sprinters. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 13(1), 58–66. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-199902000-00011

McGill, S. M., Andersen, J. T., & Horne, A. D. (2012). Predicting performance and injury resilience from movement quality and fitness scores in a basketball team over 2 years. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(7), 1731–1739. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e3182576a76

Stone, M. H. (2003). Power and Maximum Strength Relationships During Performance of Dynamic and Static Power and Maximum Strength Relationships. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 17(March), 140–147. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200302000-00022

Verkhoshansky, N. (2012). Shock method and plyometrics. Central Virginia Sport Performance, 75.

Voigt, M., Simonsen, E. B., Dyhre-Poulsen, P., & Klausen, K. (1995). Mechanical and muscular factors influencing the performance in maximal vertical jumping after different prestretch loads. Journal of Biomechanics, 28(3), 293–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(94)00062-9

Walsh, M., Arampatzis, A., Schade, F., & Brüggemann, G.-P. (2004). The effect of drop jump starting height and contact time on power, work performed, and moment of force. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 18(3), 561–566. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200408000-00030




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2020.153.17





License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/