Development of physical fitness under consideration of talent-specific aspects

Andreas Roth, Steffen CE Schmidt, Sina Hartmann, Swantje Scharenberg, Ilka Seidel, Stefan Altmann, Darko Jekauc, Klaus Bös

Abstract

Purpose: To measure the initial level and development of physical fitness (PF) in pupils from grade 4 to grade 7 in sport schools with respect to the discipline, training volume and training years. Methods: A total of 1590 (1074 female, 516 male) pupils from sport schools in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) were tested in grade 4 and re-tested in grade 7 using the German Motor Test. Additionally, the discipline, training volume and training years were captured in grade 7 via questionnaire. Results: The initial level of PF of boys and girls lies above the German average and was influenced by discipline and training volume. The track and field athletes showed the best results compared to other sport disciplines. In relation to the normal population, boys showed a slight decrease in PF from grade 4 to 7 (F = 8.3; p = 0.004; η2 = 0.009) whereas the PF of girls remained stable (F = 1.1; p = 0.290; η2 = 0.003). The development of PF is influenced by sport discipline, training volume and the interaction between training volume and time. In total, the effect sizes were low. Conclusions: There is still potential to improve training and physical education at sport schools to raise the level of PF. Training years did not influence the initial level of PF or the development of PF. In further studies, more information on the type of training would be useful.

Keywords

Motor tests; Talent identification; Training; Motor performance

References

Abbott, A., Button, C., Pepping, G.-J., & Collins, D. (2005). Unnatural selection: talent identifica-tion and development in sport. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 9(1), 61–88.

Abbott, A., & Collins, D. (2002). A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of a 'State of the Art' Talent Identification Model. High Ability Studies, 13(2), 157–178. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359813022000048798

Ali, A. (2011). Measuring soccer skill performance: a review. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 21(2), 170–183. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01256.x

Baker, J., Bagats, S., Büsch, D., Strauss, B., & Schorer, J. (2012). Training Differences and Selec-tion in a Talent Identification System. Talent Development & Excellence, 4(1), 23–32.

Baker, J., & Côté, J. (2006). Shifting training requirements during athlete development: Deliberate practice, deliberate play and other sport involvement in the acquisition of sport expertise. In D. Hackfort & G. Tenenbaum (Ed.), Essential processes for attaining peak performance (pp. 92–106). Oxford: Meyer and Meyer Sport. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118270011.ch8

Baker, J., & Horton, S. (2004). A review of primary and secondary influences on sport expertise. High Ability Studies, 15(2), 211–228. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359813042000314781

Beunen, G., & Malina, R. M. (1988). Growth and Physical Performance Relative to the Timing of the Adolescent Spurt. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 16(1), 503–540. https://doi.org/10.1249/00003677-198800160-00018

Bompa, T. O. (1999). Periodization Training For Sports: Programs For Peak Strength In 35 Sports. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Bös, K., Schlenker, L., Albrecht, C., Büsch, D., Lämmle, L., Müller, H., Oberger, J., Seidel, I., Tittlbach, S., & Woll, A. (2016). Deutscher Motorik-Test 6-18 [German Motor Test 6-18] (2nd ed.). Hamburg: Czwalina.

Bös, K. (1987). Handbuch sportmotorische Tests [Handbook motor tests]. Göttingen: Hogrefe.

Bös, K., Worth, A., Opper, E., Oberger, J., & Woll, A. (2009). Motorik-Modul: Eine Studie zur mo-torischen Leistungsfähigkeit und körperlich-sportlichen Aktivität von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland. Abschlussbericht zum Forschungsprojekt [Motoric-Module: A study on physical fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents in Germany]. Baden-Baden: Nomos. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1247105

Bottoni, A., Gianfelici, A., Tamburri, R., & Faina, M. (2011). Talent selection criteria for Olympic distance triathlon. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 6(2), 293–304. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2011.62.09

Caspersen, C. J., Powell, K. E., & Christenson, G. M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physi-cal fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports, 100(2), 126–131.

Elferink-Gemser, M., Visscher, C., Lemmink, K. A. P. M., & Mulder, T. (2007). Multidimensional performance characteristics and standard of performance in talented youth field hockey players: a longitudinal study. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(4), 481–489. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410600719945

Güllich, A., Heß, W.-D., Jakobs, K., Lehmann, F., Mäde, U., Müller, F., Oltmanns, K., & Schön, R. (2004). Offizieller Rahmentrainingsplan des Deutschen Leichtathletik-Verbandes für das Grundlagentraining [Track and field for pupils. Official frame training concept of German track and field association for basic training] (2nd ed.). Münster: Philippka.

Hackfort, D., & Tenenbaum, G. (Eds.). (2006). Essential processes for attaining peak performance. Oxford: Meyer & Meyer Sport.

Hoffmann, A., & Pfützner, A. (2014, Mai). Wege an die Spitze. Herausforderungen und Schwerpunkte im deutschen Nachwuchsleistungssport. Tagungsband zum Nachwuchsleistung-ssport-Symposium, Leipzig, Germany [Ways to the top. Challenges and priorities in German up-and-coming sports. Conference transcript of symposium of German up-and-coming sports]. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Trainingswissenschaft, 21(1), 5-283.

Hohmann, A. (2001). Leistungsdiagnostische Kriterien sportlichen Talents ¬ dargestellt am Beispiel des leichtathletischen Sprints [Performance diagnostic criteria of sports talent – illustrated by sprint in track and field]. Leistungssport, 31(4), 14–22.

Hohmann, A., & Seidel, I. (2003). Scientific aspects of talent development. International Journal of Physical Education, 33(1), 9–20.

Johnston, K., Wattie, N., Schorer, J., & Baker, J. (2018). Talent Identification in Sport: A Systemat-ic Review. Sports Medicine, 48(1), 97–109. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0803-2

Kannekens, R., Elferink-Gemser, M., Post, W., & Visscher, C. (2009). Self-assessed tactical skills in elite youth soccer players: a longitudinal study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 109(2), 459–472. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.109.2.459-472

Lämmle, L., Tittlbach, S., Oberger, J., Worth, A. & Bös, K. (2010). A Two-level Model of Motor Performance Ability. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 8(1), 41–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1728-869x(10)60006-8

Lidor, R., Côté, J. & Hackfort, D. (2009). ISSP position stand: To test or not to test? The use of physical skill tests in talent detection and in early phases of sport development. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 7(2), 131–146. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197x.2009.9671896

Matthys, S. P.J., Vaeyens, R., Fransen, J., Deprez, D., Pion, J., Vandendriessche, J., ... Philippaerts, R. (2013). A longitudinal study of multidimensional performance characteristics related to physi-cal capacities in youth handball. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(3), 325–334. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.733819

Ministerium für Familie, Kinder, Jugend, Kultur und Sport des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen. (2011). Rahmenvorgaben für NRW-Sportschulen. [Overall guidelines of sport schools of North Rhine-Westphalia]. Retrieved from www.sportland.nrw.de/fileadmin/nachwuchsfoerderung/verbundsystem/rahmenvorgaben_nrw_sportschule_2011.pdf

Ortega, F. B., Ruiz, J. R., Castillo, M. J., & Sjöström, M. (2008). Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health. International Journal of Obesity, 32(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803774

Ostojic, S. M., & Ahmetovic, Z. (2008). Weekly training volume and hematological status in female top-level athletes of different sports. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 48(3), 398–403.

Pearson, D. T., Naughton, G. A., & Torode, M. (2006). Predictability of physiological testing and the role of maturation in talent identification for adolescent team sports. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9(4), 277–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2006.05.020

Roescher, C. R., Elferink-Gemser, M., Huijgen, B., & Visscher, C. (2010). Soccer endurance devel-opment in professionals. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(3), 174–179. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1243254

Seidel, I., Grüneberg, C., Engel, F., Kurz, A.-K., Hientsch, A.-K., Moll, C. & Bös, K. (2014). Mo-torischer Test 2 für die NRW-Sportschulen. Testanleitung MT2-A sportartübergreifend, MT2-B für 17 Sportarten (Badminton, Basketball, Eishockey, Fechten, Fußball, Handball, Hockey, Judo, Kanu, Leichtathletik, Ringen, Rudern, Schwimmen Taekwondo, Tennis, Tischtennis, Volleyball, MT2 Sportpsychologische Fragebögen) [Motor Test 2 for sport schools of North Rhine-Westphalia. Test instruction MT2-A, MT2-B for 17 sport disciplines (badminton, basketball, ice hockey, fencing, soccer, handball, hockey, judo, canoe, track and field, wrestling, rowing, swimming, taekwondo, tennis, table tennis, volleyball, sport psychological questionnaires)]. Düs-seldorf: MFKJKS. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29678-2_3632

Smith, D. (2003). A framework for understanding the training process leading to elite performance. Sports Medicine, 33(15), 1103–1126. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333150-00003

Smith, J., Eather, N., Morgan, P. J., Plotnikoff, R. C., Faigenbaum, A. D., & Lubans, D. R. (2014). The Health Benefits of Muscular Fitness for Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine, 44(9), 1209–1223. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0196-4

Till, K., Cobley, S., O'Hara, J., Chapman, C., & Cooke, C. (2013). A longitudinal evaluation of an-thropometric and fitness characteristics in junior rugby league players considering playing posi-tion and selection level. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 16(5), 438–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.09.002

Vaeyens, R., Lenoir, M., Williams, A. M., Philippaerts & Renaat M. (2008). Talent Identification and Development Programmes in Sport. Sports Medicine, 38(9), 703–714. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838090-00001




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2020.153.11





License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/