An alternative to oxygen deficit as a way to quantify anaerobic contributions in running
The purpose of this study was to determine if the sum of estimates of the phosphocreatine contribution and the glycolytic contribution (we refer to this sum as PCr+glycolysis) provides an alternative to oxygen deficit as a way to quantify the anaerobic contribution in running. Thirty university students performed three treadmill tests, each test at one speed individually selected for each participant; one test was terminated after 3 min, one after 7 min, and one at exhaustion (mean ± SD, 10.3 ± 0.4 min). Oxygen deficit was calculated by subtraction of the accumulated oxygen uptake from the total oxygen cost. Phosphocreatine and glycolysis contributions were determined from post-exercise VO2 responses and blood lactate concentrations, respectively. The mean values for PCr+glycolysis was ~3 mL·kg–1 lower (p < .05) than oxygen deficit across three exercise durations, but well correlated (r ≥ .80, p < .05) at each. These results confirm the validity of PCr+glycolysis as an alternative to oxygen deficit to quantify the anaerobic contribution in running exercise.
Barstow, T. J., Lamarra, N., Whipp, B. J. (1990). Modulation of muscle and pulmonary O2 uptakes by circulatory dynamics during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 68: 979–989. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19126.96.36.1999
Beneke, R., Pollman, C., Bleif, I., Leithäuser, R. M., Hüttler, M. (2002). How anaerobic is the Wingate Anaerobic Test for humans? European Journal of Applied Physiology 87: 388–392. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-002-0622-4
Bertuzzi, R. C. M., Franchini, E., Kokubun, E., Kiss, M. A. (2007). Energy system contributions in indoor rock climbing. European Journal of Applied Physiology 101: 293–300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0501-0
Bertuzzi, R. C. M., Franchini, E., Ugrinowitsch, C., Kokubun, E., Lima-Silva, A .E., Pires, F. O., Nakamura, F. Y., Kiss, M. A. P. D. M. (2010). Predicting MAOD using only a supramaximal exhaustive test. International Journal of Sports Medicine 31(7): 477–481. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1253375
Bland, J. M., Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet i(8476): 307–310. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(86)90837-8
de Campos Mello, F., de Moraes Bertuzzi, R. C., Grangeiro, P. M., Franchini, E. (2009). Energy systems contribution in 2,000 m race simulation: a comparison among rowing ergometers and water. European Journal of Applied Physiology 2009 615–619. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1172-9
Fell J. W., Rayfield, J. M., Gulbin, J. P., Gaffney, P. T. (1998). Evaluation of the Accusport lactate analyser. International Journal of Sports Medicine 19: 199–20. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-971904
Ferreira, M. I., Barbosa, T. M., Costa, M. J., Neo, D. A. Neiva, H. P., Vilaça, J., Marinho, D. A. (2014). Effects of swim training on energetic and performance in women masters’ swimmers. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise 11(1): 99 –106. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2016.111.08
Franchini, E., Matsuchigue, K. A., Colantonio, E., Kiss, M. A. P. D. (2004). Comparação dos analisadores de lactato Accusport e Yellow Springs. Brazilian Journal of Science and Movement 12: 39–44.
Green, S., Dawson, B. T. (1996). Methodological effects on the VO2–power regression and the accumulated O2 deficit. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28: 392–397. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199603000-00016
Henry, F. M. (1951). Aerobic oxygen consumption and alactic debt in muscular work. Journal of Applied Physiology 3: 427–438. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19188.8.131.527
Hill, A. V., Lupton, H. (1923). Muscular exercise, lactic acid, and the supply utilization of oxygen. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 16: 135–171. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/os-16.62.135
Hill, D. W. (1999). Determination of the accumulated O2 deficit in exhaustive short-duration exercise. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 21, 63–74.
Hill, D. W. (2014). Morning–evening differences in response to exhaustive severe-intensity exercise. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 39, 248–254. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2013-0140
Hill, D. W., Vingren, J. L. (2011). Maximal accumulated oxygen deficit in running and cycling. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 36, 831–838. https://doi.org/10.1139/h11-108
Hill, D. W., Vingren, J. L. (2012). The effect of pedalling cadence on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112, 2637–2643. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2240-5
Hill, D. W., Vingren, J. L. (2013). Effects of exercise mode and participant sex on measures of anaerobic capacity. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 53, 255–263.
Hill, D. W., Williams, C. S., Burt, S. E. (1997). Responses to exercise at 92% and 100% of the velocity associated with VO2max. International Journal of Sports Medicine 18: 325–329. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-972641
Jones, A. M., Grassi, B., Christensen, P. M., Krustrup, P., Bangsbo, J., Poole, D. C. (2011). Slow component of VO2 kinetics: mechanistic bases and practical applications Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 43(11) 2046–2062. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31821fcfc1
Joyner, M. J., Coyle, E. F. (2008). Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions. Journal of Physiology 586: 35–44. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2007.143834
Krouwer, J. S. (2007). Why Bland–Altman plots should use X, not (Y+X)/2 when X is a reference method. Statistics in Medicine 27(5): 778–780. https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.3086
Li, Y., Niessen, M., Chen, X., Hartmann, U. (2015). Overestimate of relative aerobic contribution with maximal accumulated oxygen deficit: a review. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 55: 377–382.
Lopes-Silva, J. P., Da Silva Santos, J. F., Artiola, G. G., Loturco, I., Abbiss, C., Franchini, E. (2018). Sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases glycolytic contribution and improves performance during simulated taekwondo combat. European Journal of Sport Science 18(3): 431–440. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2018.1424942
Margaria, R., Edwards, H. T., Dill, D. B. (1933). The possible mechanism of contracting and paying the oxygen debt and the role of lactic acid in muscular contraction. American Journal of Physiology 106: 689–714. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplegacy.19184.108.40.2069
Miyagi, W. E., de Poli, R. A. B., Papoti, M., Bertuzzi, R., Zagatto, A. M. (2017). Anaerobic capacity estimated in a single supramaximal test in cycling: validity and reliability analysis. Science Reports 7: article number 42485. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep42485
Noordhof, D. A., de Koning, J. J., Foster, C. (2010). The maximal accumulated oxygen deficit method: A valid and reliable measure of anaerobic capacity? Sports Medicine 40(4): 285–302. https://doi.org/10.2165/11530390-000000000-00000
Noordhof, D. A., Mulder, R. C. M., Malterer, K. R., Foster, C., de Koning, J. J. (2015). The decline in gross efficiency in relation to cycling time trial length. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 10: 64–70. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2014-0034
Panissa, V. L. G., Fukuda, D. H., Caldeira, R. S., Gerosa-Neto, J., Lira, F. S., Zagatto, A. M., Franchini, E. (2018). Is oxygen uptake measurement enough to estimate energy expenditure during high-intensity intermittent exercise? Quantification of anaerobic contribution by different methods. Frontiers of Physiology 9: 868. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00868
Thomas, S., Reading, J., Shephard, R. J. (1992). Revision of the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q). Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences 17: 338–345.
Urso, R. R., Silva-Cavalcante, M. D., Correia-Oliveira, C. F., Bueno, S., Damasceno, M. V., Lima-Silva, A. E., Bertuzzi, R. (2013). Determinação dos metabolismos lático e alático da capacidade anaeróbia por meio do consumo de oxigênio (Determination of lactic and alactic metabolisms of the anaerobic capacity using oxygen uptake). Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano 15: 616–627. https://doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n5p616
World Health Organization. (2013). Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Journal of the American Medical Association 310: 2191–2194. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.281053
Zagatto, A. M., Bertuzzi, R., Miyagi, W. E., Padulo, J., Papoti, M. (2016). MAOD determined in a single supramaximal test: a study on the reliability and effects of supramaximal intensities. International Journal of Sports Medicine 37: 700–707. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-104413
Zagatto, A. M., Gobatto, C. A. (2012). Relationship between anaerobic parameters provided from MAOD and critical power model in specific table tennis set. International Journal of Sports Medicine 33: 613–620. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1304648
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.