Effects of nutritional intake on performance in master athletes during an extreme ultra-trail
The purpose of our study was to monitor a well-trained master athlete who competed in the race, keeping under review his performance outcomes. TransPyrenea (La Grande Traversée des Pyrénées) is an Ultra Trail 13-16-d race, 866 km long, 53200 meters of elevation gain, performed for the first time in 2016, becoming the longest race in the world. At every checkpoint, a member of the team ascertained total macronutrients intake and body composition. A wearable device was used to monitor glycemia during all the race. The athlete completed the race with an average speed of 2.6 km/h, including 26 hours and 30 minutes of sleeping. Multiple regression analysis showed that the increase of the speed (β: 0.5 km/h, 95% CI: 0.07 | 1.02 km/h, p-value: .035 and β: 1.32 km/h, 95% CI: 0.53 | 2.11 km/h, p-value: .004) was related to the increase of one hour of sleep and one kg of weight respectively. This evidence could induce the use of specific nutritional supplements and the analysis of body composition on the management strategies of the race, with eventually the planning of a greater number of hours of sleep to acquire greater speed.
Bailey T, Bode WB, Christiansen MP, Klaff LJ, Alva S. The Performance and Usability of a Factory-Calibrated Flash Glucose Monitoring System. Diabetes Technol Ther 2015; 17(11):787-794. https://doi.org/10.1089/dia.2014.0378
Best R, Barwick B, Best A, Berger N, Harrison C, Wright M, & Sparrow J. Changes in Pain and Nutritional Intake Modulate Ultra-Running Performance: A Case Report. Sports 2018; 6(4):111. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6040111
Borges N, Reaburn P, Driller M, Argus C. Age-related changes in performance and recovery kinetics in masters athletes: a narrative review. Journal of aging and physical activity 2016; 24(1):149-157. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.2015-0021
Brisswalter J, Louis J. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes. Sports Medicine 2014;44(3):311-318. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0126-x
Burke L. Training and competition nutrition. Practical Sports Nutrition 2007; 1-26.
Burke LM, Hawley JA, Wong SH, Jeukendrup AE. Carbohydrates for training and competition. Journal of sports sciences 2011; 29(suppl 1):17-27.
Buxton OM, Pavlova M, Reid EW, Wang W, Simonson DC, Adler GK. Sleep Restriction for 1 Week Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Healthy Men. Diabetes 2010; 59. https://doi.org/10.2337/db09-0699
Chiampas GT, Goyal AV. Innovative Operations Measures and Nutritional Support for Mass Endurance Events. Sports Medicine 2015; 45(1):61-69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0396-6
Costa RJ, Teixeira A, Rama L, Swancott AJ, Hardy LD, Lee B, Barrett E. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study. Nutrition journal 2013; 12(1):13. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-12-13
Costa RJ, Snipe R, Camões-Costa V, Scheer V, Murray A. The impact of gastrointestinal symptoms and dermatological injuries on nutritional intake and hydration status during ultramarathon events. Sports medicine-open 2016; 2(1): 16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-015-0041-9
Costa RJS, Hoffman MD, Stellingwerff T. Considerations for ultra-endurance activities: part 1- nutrition.Res Sports Med 2018; 28:1-16.
Cugliari G, Boccia G. Core muscle activation in suspension training exercises. Journal of human kinetics 2017; 56(1):61-71. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0023
Cugliari G, Messina F, Canavero V, Biorci F, Ivaldi M. Relationship of chlorophyll supplement and platelet-related measures in endurance athletes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sport Sciences for Health 2018; 1-6.
Fullagar HHK, Skorski S, Duffield R, Hammes D, Coutts AJ, Meyer T. Sleep and athletic performance: the effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Sports Medicine 2015; 45: 161-186. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0260-0
Gennaro F, De Bruin ED. Assessing Brain–Muscle Connectivity in Human Locomotion through Mobile Brain/Body Imaging: Opportunities, Pitfalls, and Future Directions. Frontiers in public health 2018; 26:6-39. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00039
Hoffman MD, Ong JC, Wang G. Historical analysis of participation in 161 km ultramarathons in North America. The International journal of the history of sport 2010; 27(11):1877-1891. https://doi.org/10.1080/09523367.2010.494385
Ivaldi M, Cugliari G, Peracchione S, Rainoldi A. Familiarity affects electrocortical power spectra during dance imagery, listening to different music genres: independent component analysis of Alpha and Beta rhythms. Sport Sciences for Health. 2017; 13(3):535-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-017-0379-0
Ivaldi M, Pretari F, Cugliari G. Electrocortical activity during stretch reflex in athletes. Sport Sciences for Health 2018; 14(3):625-631. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-018-0471-0
Jeukendrup A. A Step Towards Personalized Sports Nutrition: Carbohydrate Intake During Exercise. Sports Med 2014; 44(Suppl 1):25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0148-z
Knechtle B, Rüst CA, Rosemann T, Lepers R. Age-related changes in 100-km ultra-marathon running performance. Age 2012; 34(4):1033-1045. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-011-9290-9
Knufinke M, Nieuwenhuys A, Maase K, Moen HM, Geurts AES, Coenen AML, Kompier AJM. Effects of Natural Between-Days Variation in Sleep on Elite Athletes’ Psychomotor Vigilance and Sport-Specific Measures of Performance. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 2018; 17:515-524.
Kruseman M, Bucher S, Bovard M, Kayser B, Bovier PA. Nutrient intake and performance during a mountain marathon: an observational study. European journal of applied physiology 2005; 94(1-2):151-157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-004-1234-y
Learsi SK, Ghiarone T, Silva-Cavalcante MD, Andrade-Souza VA, Ataide-Silva T, Bertuzzi R, de Araujo GG, McConell G, Lima-Silva AE. Cycling TT performance is improved by carbohydrate ingestion during exercise regardless of a fed or fasted state. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2019; 23. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13393
Louis J, Hausswirth C, Bieuzen F, Brisswalter J. Vitamin and mineral supplementation effect on muscular activity and cycling efficiency in master athletes. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 2010; 35(3):251-260. https://doi.org/10.1139/h10-014
Martinez S, Aguilo A, Rodas L, Lozano L, Moreno C, Tauler P. Energy, macronutrient and water intake during a mountain ultramarathon event: The influence of distance. Journal of Sports Sciences 2017; 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1306092
Nikolaidis PT, Veniamakis E, Rosemann T, Knechtle B. Review. Nutrition in Ultra-Endurance: State of the Art. Nutrients 2018; 10:1995. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121995
Oliver SJ, Costa RJ, Laing SJ, Bilzon JL, Walsh NP. One night of sleep deprivation decreases treadmill endurance performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. Sep 2009; 107(2):155-61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1103-9
Paulin S, Roberts J, Roberts Mand Davis I. A case study evaluation of competitors undertaking an antarctic ultra-endurance event: nutrition, hydration and body composition variables. Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2015; 4:3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13728-015-0022-0
Piacentini MF, De Ioannon G, Cibelli G, Mignardi S, Antonelli A, Capranica L. Training for a 78-km solo open water swim. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 2017; 57(6):790-793.
Punjabi NM, Shahar E, Redline S, Gottlieb DJ, Givelber R, Resnick HE. Sleep Heart Health Study Investigators. Sleep-disordered breathing, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance: the Sleep Heart Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 160(6):521-30. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwh261
Rae DE, Chin T, Dikgomo K, Hill L, McKune AJ, Kohn TA, Roden LC. One night of partial sleep deprivation impairs recovery from a single exercise training session.European Journal of Applied Physiology 2017; 117:699-712. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3565-5
Schwartz J, Simon RD. Sleep extension improves serving accuracy: A study with college varsity tennis players. Physiology & Behavior 2015; 151:541-544. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.08.035
Shoak MA, Knechtle B, Knechtle P, Rüst CA, Rosemann T, Lepers R. Participation and performance trends in ultracycling. Open access journal of sports medicine 2013; 4:41. https://doi.org/10.2147/oajsm.s40142
Tonacci A, Mrakic-Sposta S, Ujka K, Sansone F, Ferrisi A, Giardini G, Conte R, Pratali L. Neurosensory and Cognitive Modifications in Europe's Toughest RandoRaid Competition: the Transpyrénéa Extreme Study. Frontiers in physiology 2017; 8:201. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00201
Zaryski C, Smith DJ. Training principles and issues for ultra-endurance athletes. Curr. Sports Med 2005; 4(1):65-170. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.csmr.0000306201.49315.73
Zaryski C, Smith DJ. Training principles and issues for ultra‐endurance athletes. Current sports medicine reports 2005; 4(3):165-170. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.csmr.0000306201.49315.73
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.