Effect of simple home exercise focused on timing and coordination on lower-extremity function in non-disabled older persons: A quasi-randomized controlled trial
Keywords:Non-disabled older persons, Lower-extremity function, Home based exercise, Health promotion
Introduction: Lower-extremity function is a predictor of subsequent disability in non-disabled older persons. The present study aimed to determine the effect of simple home exercise focused on timing and coordination of movement on lower-extremity function in community dwelling non-disabled older persons. Materials and methods: Study design was a single-blind quasi-randomized controlled trial. The participants were 66 non-disabled older persons aged 60 years or older who independent activity of daily living and walking indoor and outdoor. They were devilled into intervention group (n = 34) and control group (n = 32). Participants in the control group participated in routine activities. The intervention group participated in a 1-month of simple home exercise focused on timing and coordination of movement consisted of calf raise, pivot turn and front stepping. Lower-extremity function was assessed by measuring maximum walking speed, figure-of-8 walk test, 3-m zigzag walk test and chair stand five test at baseline and at 1month after starting the intervention. Results: The intervention improved chair stand five test (8.8sec to 7.5sec; p < .05). There was no significant change in maximum walking speed, figure-of-8 walk test and 3-m zigzag walk test. The mean adherence rate of home exercise was 76.1 ± 17.4%. Conclusion: Simple home exercise focused on timing and coordination of movement is effective to improve lower-extremity function in community dwelling non-disabled older persons.
Albert, S. M., Bear-Lehman, J., & Anderson, S. J. (2015). Declines in mobility and changes in performance in the instrumental activities of daily living among mildly disabled community-dwelling older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 70(1), 71–77. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glu088
Ando, M., & Kamide, N. (2013). The reference values for the 5 m walking time in community-dwelling Japanese elderly people: Determination using the methodology meta-analysis. Sogo Rihabiriteshon, 41, 961-967. https://doi.org/10.11477/mf.1552110277 (In Japanese, English abstract)
Bland, K., Lowry, K., Krajek, A., Woods, T., & VanSwearingen, J. (2019). Spatiotemporal variability underlying skill in curved-path walking. Gait Posture, 67, 137-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.10.001
Bohannon, R. W. (1995). Sit-to-stand test for measuring performance of lower extremity muscles. Percept Mot Skills, 80(1), 163-166. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.52
Bohannon, R. W. (2006). Reference values for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test: A descriptive meta-analysis of data from elders. Percept Mot Skills, 103(1), 215-222. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.103.1.215-222
Brach, J. S., Francois, S. J., VanSwearingen, J. M., Gilmore, S., Perera, S., & Studenski, S. A. (2016). Translation of a Motor Learning Walking Rehabilitation Program Into a Group-Based Exercise Program for Community-Dwelling Older Adults. PM R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation, 8(6), 520–528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2015.10.004
Glaister, B. C., Bernatz, G. C., Klute, G. K., & Orendurff, M. S. (2007). Video task analysis of turning during activities of daily living. Gait Posture, 25(2), 289-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.04.003
Green, P., Woglom, A. E., Genereux, P., Maurer, M. S., Kirtane, A. J., Hawkey, M., … Kodali, S. (2012). Gait speed and dependence in activities of daily living in older adults with severe aortic stenosis. Clin Cardiol, 35(5), 307–314. https://doi.org/10.1002/clc.21974
Guralnik, J. M., Ferrucci, L., Simonsick, E. M., Salive, M. E., & Wallace, R. B. (1995). Lower-Extremity Function in Persons over the Age of 70 Years as a Predictor of Subsequent Disability. N Engl J Med, 332, 556-562. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199503023320902
Hess, R. J., Brach, J. S., Piva, S. R., & VanSwearingen, J. M. (2010). Walking skill can be assessed in older adults: validity of the Figure-of-8 Walk Test. Phys Ther, 90(1), 89–99. https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20080121
Hiemstra, L. A., Lo, I. K., & Fowler, P. J. (2001). Effect of fatigue on knee proprioception: Implications for dynamic stabilization. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 31(10), 598-605. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2001.31.10.598
Judge, J. O., Õunpuu, S., & Davis, R. B. (1996). Effects of Age on the Biomechanics and Physiology of Gait. Clin Geriatr Med, 12(4), 659-678. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0690(18)30194-0
Lord, S. R., & Fitzpatrick, R. C. (2001). Choice stepping reaction time: A composite measure of falls risk in older people. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 56(10), M627-M632. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/56.10.M627
Lord, S. R., Murray, S. M., Chapman, K., Munro, B., & Tiedemann, A. (2002). Sit-to-stand performance depends on sensation, speed, balance, and psychological status in addition to strength in older people. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 57(8), M539-M543. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/57.8.m539
Masuda, S., Suganuma, K., Kaneko, C., Hoshina, K., Suzuki, T., Serita, T., & Sakakibara, R. (2013). Prediction of Falls Using a 3-m Zigzag Walk Test. J Phys Ther Sci, 25(9), 1051–1054. https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.25.1051
Mizota, K., Murata, S., Otao, H., Hachiya, M., Kubo, A., Kai, Y., Matsuo, N., Miyazaki, J., & Yamamoto, F. (2014). Validity and reliability of the Figure-of-8 Walk Test in which participants walk at maximum speeds. Jpn J Health Prom Phys Ther, 4(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.9759/hppt.4.1 (In Japanese, English abstract)
Odonkor, C. A., Thomas, J. C., Holt, N., Latham, N., Vanswearingen, J., Brach, J. S., … Bean, J. (2013). A comparison of straight- and curved-path walking tests among mobility-limited older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 68(12), 1532–1539. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glt060
Quach, L., Galica, A. M., Jones, R. N., Procter-Gray, E., Manor, B., Hannan, M. T., & Lipsitz, L. A. (2011). The nonlinear relationship between gait speed and falls: the Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect, and Zest in the Elderly of Boston Study. J Am Geriatr Soc, 59(6), 1069–1073. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03408.x
Ribeiro, F., & Oliveira, J. (2007). Aging effects on joint proprioception: The role of physical activity in proprioception preservation. Eur Rev Aging Phys Act, 4(2), 71-76. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11556-007-0026-x
Salbach, N. M., Mayo, N. E., Higgins, J., Ahmed, S., Finch, L. E., & Richards, C. L. (2001). Responsiveness and predictability of gait speed and other disability measures in acute stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 82(9), 1204-1212. https://doi.org/10.1053/apmr.2001.24907
Studenski, S., Perera, S., Patel, K., Rosano, C., Faulkner, K., Inzitari, M., … Guralnik, J. (2011). Gait speed and survival in older adults. JAMA, 305(1), 50–58. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.1923
Suzuki, T., Bean, J. F., & Fielding, R. A. (2001). Muscle power of the ankle flexors predicts functional performance in community-dwelling older women. J Am Geriatr Soc, 49(9), 1161-1167. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2001.49232.x
Taylora, M., Dabnichki, P., & Strike, S. (2005). A three-dimensional biomechanical comparison between turning strategies during the stance phase of walking. Hum Mov Sci, 24(4), 558-573. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2005.07.005
Thigpen, M. T., Light, K. E., Creel, G. L., & Flynn, S. M. (2000). Turning Difficulty Characteristics of Adults Aged 65 Years or Older. Phys Ther, 80(12), 1174-1187. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/80.12.1174
Tiedemann, A., Shimada, H., Sherrington, C., Murray, S., & Lord, S. (2008). The comparative ability of eight functional mobility tests for predicting falls in community-dwelling older people. Age Ageing, 37(4), 430-435. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afn100
VanSwearingen, J. M., Perera, S., Brach, J. S., Cham, R., Rosano, C., & Studenski, S. A. (2009). A randomized trial of two forms of therapeutic activity to improve walking: effect on the energy cost of walking. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 64(11), 1190–1198. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glp098
VanSwearingen, J. M., Perera, S., Brach, J. S., Wert, D., & Studenski, S. A. (2011). Impact of exercise to improve gait efficiency on activity and participation in older adults with mobility limitations: a randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther, 91(12), 1740–1751. https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20100391
VanSwearingen, J. M., & Studenski, S. A. (2014). Aging, motor skill, and the energy cost of walking: implications for the prevention and treatment of mobility decline in older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 69(11), 1429–1436. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glu153
Whitney, S. L., Wrisley, D. M., Marchetti, G. F., Gee, M. A., Redfern, M. S., & Furman, J. M. (2005). Clinical Measurement of Sit-to-Stand Performance in People With Balance Disorders: Validity of Data for the Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand Test. Phys Ther, 85(10), 1034-1045. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/85.10.1034
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.