The effect of different sports specialization on ankle joint mobility of young players
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of practicing different sports on ankle joint mobility (AJM) in young subjects. In 344 players of 5 different sports (soccer, classical ballet, gymnastics, volleyball and basketball), mean age 12.0 ± 2.4 years, sex (male/female: 237/107), BMI 19.0 ± 2.8 (Kg/m2), AJM was evaluated by using an inclinometer while the trunk flexibility was evaluated by the Sit and Reach test. Compared to all other groups, soccer players showed a significant reduction of AJM (p < .005) that is already present in younger subjects and that tends to worsen with aging (p < .04). On the contrary, the young dancers of classic ballet showed a significant increase in the AJM (p < .002). Basketball, volleyball and gymnastics groups showed a similar AJM. The higher AJM showed by females compared to males (128.5 ± 21.0° vs 144.6 ± 18.5°; p < .001) was not significant when the group of soccer players and dancers were excluded from the calculation. All groups investigated did not show a different mobility between the two ankles or the dominant and non-dominant limb. The age of the subjects investigated was not correlated with AJM. The group of gymnasts showed a significant increase in trunk flexibility (p < .001) compared to all other groups. Sport practice can significantly modify AJM both by increasing and reducing it. Such process should be timely assessed in order to prevent these alterations along with the related possible negative effects in the short and long term.
Bahr, R., & Bahr, I.A. (1997). Incidence of acute volleyball injuries: a prospective cohort study of injury mechanisms and risk factors. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 7(3):166-171. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.1997.tb00134.x
Basnett, C.R., Hanish, M.J., Wheeler, T.J., et al. (2013). Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion influences dynamic balance in individuals with chronic ankle instability. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 8(2):121-128.
Bennell, K., Khan, K.M., Matthews, B., et al. (1999). Hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in young female ballet dancers and controls. Br J Sports Med. 33(5):340–346. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.33.5.340
Bergeron, M.F., Mountjoy, M., Armstrong, N., et al. (2015). International Olympic Committee consensus statement on youth athletic development. Br J Sports Med 49:843–851. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094962
Boone, D.C., & Azen, S.P. (1979). Normal range of motion of joints in male subjects. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 61(5):756-759. https://doi.org/10.2106/00004623-197961050-00017
Clarkson, H.M. (2013). Musculoskeletal assessment: joint motion and muscle testing. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 350-352.
de Noronha, M., Refshauge, K.M., Herbert, R.D., Kilbreath, S.L., Hertel, J. (2006). Do voluntary strength, proprioception, range of motion, or postural sway predict occurrence of lateral ankle sprain? Br J Sports Med. 40(10):824-828. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2006.029645
DeLang, M.D., Kondratek, M., DiPace, L.J., & Hew-Butler, T. (2017). Collegiate male soccer players exhibit between-limb symmetry in body composition muscle strength and range of motion. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 12(7):1087-1094. https://doi.org/10.26603/ijspt20171087
Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport (England). (2018). Taking Part 2017/18: annual child release. National Statistics. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/taking-part-201718-annual-child-release
Faude, O., Rößler. R., & Junge, A. (2013). Football injuries in children and adolescent players: are there clues for prevention? Sports Med. 43(9):819-837. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0061-x
FIFA Communications Division. (2007). FIFA Big Count 2006; Statistical Summary Report. https://www.fifa.com/mm/document/fifafacts/bcoffsurv/bigcount.statspackage_7024.pdf
Francia, P., Perrella, A., Sorelli, M., et al. (2017). A mathematical model of the effect of metabolic control on joint mobility in young type 1 diabetic subjects. CMBEBIH - IFMBE Proceedings; Springer, Singapore. 62:355-359. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4166-2_54
Francia, P., Seghieri, G., Gulisano, M., et al. (2015) The role of joint mobility in evaluating and monitoring the risk of diabetic foot ulcer. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 108: 398-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2015.04.001
Francia. P., Sorelli, M., Piccini, B., et al. (2019). Glycemic Control Maintained over Time and Joint Stiffness in Young Type 1 Patients: What Is the Mathematical Relationship? J Diabetes Sci Technol. 13:728-733. https://doi.org/10.1177/1932296818802840
Golanó, P., Dalmau-Pastor, M., Vega, J., & Batista, J.P. (2014). Anatomy of the Ankle. In: d'Hooghe P., Kerkhoffs G. (eds) The Ankle in Football. Sports and Traumatology. Springer, Paris; 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-2-8178-0523-8_1
Kaufman, K.R., Brodine, S.K., Shaffer, R.A., Johnson, C.W., & Cullison, T.R. (1999). The effect of foot structure and range of motion on musculoskeletal overuse injuries. Am J Sports Med. 27(5):585-593. https://doi.org/10.1177/03635465990270050701
Kaumeyer, G., & Malone, T.R. (1980). Ankle injuries: anatomical and biomechanical considerations necessary for the development of an injury prevention program. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1(3):171-177. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.1922.214.171.124
Kumar, S., Sharma, R., Gulati, D., Dhammi, I.K., & Aggarwal, A.N. (2011). Normal range of motion of hip and ankle in Indian population. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 45(6):421-424. https://doi.org/10.3944/AOTT.2011.2612
López-Miñarro, P.A., de Baranda Andújar, P.S., & RodrÑGuez-GarcÑa, P.L. (2009) A comparison of the sit-and-reach test and the back-saver sit-and-reach test in university students. J Sports Sci Med. 8(1): 116–122. https://doi.org/10.5958/0973-5674.2014.00042.2
Marencakova, J., Maly, T., Sugimoto, D., Gryc, T., & Zahalka, F. (2018). Foot typology, body weight distribution, and postural stability of adolescent elite soccer players: A 3-year longitudinal study. PLoS One. 13(9):e0204578. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204578
McKay, G., Goldie, P., Payne, W., & Oakes, B. (2001). Ankle injuries in basketball: injury rate and risk factors. Br J Sports Med. 35(2):103–108. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.35.2.103
Merkel, D.L. (2013). Youth sport: positive and negative impact on young athletes. Open Access J Sports Med. 4:151–160. https://doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S33556
National Physical Activity Plan Alliance. (2018). The 2018 United States Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. Washington, DC. http://www.physicalactivityplan.org/projects/PA/2018/2018_USReportCard_UPDATE_12062018.pdf?pdf=page-image
Read, P.J., Oliver, J.L., De Ste Croix, M.B., Myer, G.D., & Lloyd, R.S. (2016). Neuromuscular Risk Factors for Knee and Ankle Ligament Injuries in Male Youth Soccer Players. Sports Med. 46(8):1059-66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0479-z
Ribeiro, C.Z.P., Akashi, P.M.H., Sacco, I.C.N., & Pedrinelli, A. (2003). Relationship between postural changes and injuries of the locomotor system in indoor soccer athletes. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 9(2):98–103. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1517-86922003000200005
Rössler, R., Junge, A., Chomiak, J., et al. (2018). Risk factors for football injuries in young players aged 7 to 12 years. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 28(3):1176-1182. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12981
Russell, J.A., McEwan, I.M., Koutedakis, Y., & Wyon, M.A. (2008). Clinical anatomy and biomechanics of the ankle in dance. J Dance Med Sci.12(3):75-82.
Statistics Canada. (2014). Kids' Sports Top 10 organized sports of 5- to14-year-olds in 2005. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-008-x/2008001/article/10573-eng.htm
Stefanyshyn, D.J., & Engsberg, J.R. (1994). Right to left differences in the ankle joint complex range of motion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 26(5):551-555. https://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=8007801
Strong, W.B., Malina, R.M., Blimkie, C.J., et al. (2005). Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatr. 146(6):732–737. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.01.055
Study Center FIGC. (2017). Report Calcio 2017. https://www.pwc.com/it/it/publications/assets/docs/reportcalcio-2017.pdf
Terada, M., Pietrosimone, B.G., & Gribble, P.A. (2013). Therapeutic interventions for increasing ankle dorsiflexion after ankle sprain: a systematic review. J Athl Train. 48(5):696-709. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-48.4.11
Yaniv, M., Becker, T., Goldwirt, M., Khamis, S., Steinberg, D.M., & Weintroub, S. (2016). Prevalence of bowlegs among child and adolescent soccer players. Clin J Sport Med. 16(5):392-396. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.jsm.0000244602.74460.e4
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.