Impact of exercise intervention on anxiety levels and mood profile of Greek prison inmates
Imprisonment is clearly associated with mental health problems among prisoners. Evidence across research literature shows that exercise in detention environments improves mental health. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of an exercise program on mood profile and anxiety of inmates in Greek prisons. Sixty male inmates randomly assigned in two groups (control and experiment). Individuals of the exercise group received a 12 weeks training program at a frequency of three (3) training sessions each week of 60 minutes per session. Control group individuals did not participate in the exercise program. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered to both groups prior and after exercise intervention. The findings of this study support the beneficial effect of exercise on mood and anxiety of inmates in Greek prison settings.
Acevedo-Pabón, Á. F., Manrique-Abril, F. G., & Ospina-Díaz, J. M. (2015). Impact of vigorous exercise on serum levels of L-carnitine in prisoners in Colombia. Revista de Salud Pública, 17(5), 689-698. https://doi.org/10.15446/rsap.v17n5.39577
Amtmann, J., & Kukay, J. (2016). Fitness changes after an 8-week fitness coaching program at a regional youth detention facility. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 22(1), 75-83. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078345815620273
Athanasopoulou, P. (2016). Provision of nursing care to prisoners (Master thesis). Western Greece University of Applied Sciences, Patra, Greece.
Basaran, Z. (2016). The effect of recreational activities on the self-esteem and loneliness level of the prisoners as an alternative education. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4(5), 1080-1088. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2016.040518
Battaglia, C., di Cagno, A., Fiorilli, G., Giombini, A., Borrione, P., Baralla, F., ... Pigozzi, F. (2014). Participation in a 9-month selected physical exercise programme enhances psychological well-being in a prison population. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 25(5), 343-354. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbm.1922
Bilderbeck, A. C., Farias, M., Brazil, I. A., Jakobowitz, S., & Wikholm, C. (2013). Participation in a 10-week course of yoga improves behavioural control and decreases psychological distress in a prison population. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(10), 1438-1445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.06.014
Boothby, J. L., & Clements, C. B. (2000). A national survey of correctional psychologists. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 27(6), 716-732. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854800027006003
Buckaloo, B. J., Krug, K. S., & Nelson, K. B. (2009). Exercise and the low-security inmate: Changes in depression, stress, and anxiety. The Prison Journal, 89(3), 328-343. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032885509339508
Cashin, A., Potter, E., & Butler, T. (2008). The relationship between exercise and hopelessness in prison. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 15(1), 66-71. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2850.2007.01207.x
Dandoulaki, M., Kosteri, V., & Milaki, V. (2008). The psychology of prisoners. The case of prison in New Alikarnasos (Master Thesis). Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.
Fazel, S., & Baillargeon, J. (2011). The health of prisoners. The Lancet, 377(9769), 956-965. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(10)61053-7
Gallant, D., Sherry, E., & Nicholson, M. (2015). Recreation or rehabilitation? Managing sport for development programs with prison populations. Sport Management Review, 18(1), 45-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2014.07.005
Geitona, M., & Milioni, S. O. (2016). Health status and access to health services of female prisoners in Greece: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Health Services Research, 16(1), 243. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1506-3
Ghanbarzadeh, M., & Mohamadi, A. (2012). Aerobic exercise on mental health of prisoner people. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 12(2), 217-221.
Gold, C., Assmus, J., Hjørnevik, K., Qvale, L. G., Brown, F. K., Hansen, A. L., Waage, L., & Stige, B. (2014). Music therapy for prisoners: Pilot randomised controlled trial and implications for evaluating psychosocial interventions. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 58(12), 1520-1539. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624x13498693
Harner, H., Hanlon, A. L., & Garfinkel, M. (2010). Effect of iyengar yoga on mental health of incarcerated women: A feasibility study. Nursing Research, 59(6), 389-399. https://doi.org/10.1097/nnr.0b013e3181f2e6ff
Hilyer, J. C., Wilson, D. G., Dillon, C., Caro, L., Jenkins, C., Spencer, W. A., Meadows, M., & Wayne, M. (1982). Physical fitness training and counseling as treatment for youthful offenders. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(3), 292-303. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0184.108.40.2062
Igomu, C. M., & Rev Mayange, L. T. (2013). Relationship between self-esteem and personal development of prison inmates in Jalingo, Taraba State Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(4), 277-283.
Koulouris, N. K., & Aloskofis, W. (2013). Prison conditions in Greece. Rome: Antigone Edizioni.
Mannocci, A., Mipatrini, D., D’ Egidio, V., Rizzo, J., Meggolaro, S., Firenze, A., Boccia, G., Santangelo, O. E., Villari, P., La Torre, G., & Masala, D. (2017). Health related quality of life and physical activity in prison: a multicenter observational study in Italy. European Journal of Public Health, 28(3), 570-576. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckx183
Marshall, T., Simpson, S., & Stevens, A. (2000). Health care in prisons: a health care needs assessment. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.
Martin, R. E., Adamson, S., Korchinski, M., Granger-Brown, A., Ramsden, V. R., Buxton, J. A., ... Hislop, T. G. (2013). Incarcerated women develop a nutrition and fitness program: Participatory research. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 9(3), 142-150. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijph-03-2013-0015
McNair, D. M., Kerr, M., & Droppleman, L. F. (1971). Profile of mood states manual. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing.
Milioni, S. O., & Geitona, M. (2017). The impact of incarceration on Greek female prisoners’ self-reported health status. Journal of Women's Health Care, 6(4), 386. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-0420.1000386
Naidoo, J. & Wills, J. (2010). Developing Practice for Public Health and Health Promotion (e-book). Elsevier Health Sciences.
Nelson, M., Specian, V. L., Tracy, N. C., & DeMello, J. J. (2006). The effects of moderate physical activity on offenders in a rehabilitative program. Journal of Correctional Education, 57(4), 276-285.
Nichols, G. (2010). Sport and crime reduction: The role of sports in tackling youth crime. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203089156
Nurse, J., Woodcock, P., & Ormsby, J. (2003). Influence of environmental factors on mental health within prisons: focus group study. British Mental Journal, 327(7413), 480. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7413.480
Pérez-Moreno, F., Cámara-Sánchez, M., Tremblay, J. F., Riera-Rubio, V. J., Gil-Paisan, L., & Lucia, A. (2007). Benefits of exercise training in Spanish prison inmates. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(12), 1046-1052. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-965129
Plugge, E., Douglas, N. F., & Fitzpatrick, R. (2006). The health of women in prison: Study findings. Department of Public Health, University of Oxford.
Psychou, D., Kokaridas, D., Koulouris, N., Theodorakis, Y., & Krommidas, C. (2019). The effect of exercise on improving quality of life and self-esteem of inmates in Greek prisons. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.142.10
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Verdot, C., Champely, S., Clement, M., & Massarelli, R. (2010). Physical practice as a means to limit the noxious effects of prison confinement: Impact of a physical program on prisoners' perceived health and psychological well-being. Psychologie Du Travail et Des Organisations, 16(1), 63-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1420-2530(16)30161-3
Wagner, M., McBride, R. E., & Crouse, S. F. (1999). The effects of weight-training exercise on aggression variables in adult male inmates. The Prison Journal, 79(1), 72-89. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032885599079001005
Walmsley, R. (2016). World prison population list (11th ed.), ICPS.
Ward, K., Longaker, A. J., Williams, J., Naylor, A., Rose, C. A., & Simpson, C. G. (2013). Incarceration within American and Nordic prisons: Comparison of national and international policies. The International Journal of Research and Practice on Student Engagement, 1(1), 36-47.
Williams, D., Collingwood, L., Coles, J., & Schmeer, S. (2015). Evaluating a rugby sport intervention programme for young offenders. Journal of Criminal Psychology, 5(1), 51 – 64. https://doi.org/10.1108/jcp-05-2014-0008
Woods, D., Breslin, G., & Hassan, D. (2017). A systematic review of the impact of sport-based interventions on the psychological well-being of people in prison. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 12, 50-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2017.02.003
World Health Organization. (2013). Good governance for prison health in the 21st century: A policy brief on the organization of prison health. Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO Regional Office for Europe.
World Health Organization. (2008). Trencin statement on prisons and mental health= Déclaration de Trencin relative à la santé mentale en prison= Erklärung von Trencin psychische Gesundheit in Strafvollzug.
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.