Physical activity in the recess of childhood education: A pilot study using Garmin Vivofit Jr wristbands
Physical inactivity and obesity have important implications for health. Achieve 60 minutes per day of moderate physical activity (MPA) or vigorous is a recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) for children aged between 5 and 17 years. The school environment can be a generator of physical activity (PA) since early childhood education. The purpose of this study is to analyse the minutes of PA and its intensity in schoolchildren of 5 years during recess and to what extent its favours is reaching the recommendations of daily PA promoted by WHO. By monitoring 18 children for 8 days using the Garmin Vivofit Jr. wristband, were obtained the minutes of MPA and the number of steps (NS), disaggregated by time. The daily average of MPA was 87 ± 16 minutes and 9100 ± 1807 NS. During recess, schoolchildren reached an average of 16 ± 4 minutes and 1666 ± 370 NS. Statistically significant differences were found, both in minutes of MPA and in NS in favour of children (p < .001) and 50% more in days without rain compared with rainy days (p < .001). There were no significant differences in MPA (p = .20) or NS (p = .16) depending on the semester of birth. In the recess in the infantile age it reached approximately 25% of the MPA recommended by the WHO.
Beighle, A., Morgan, C. F., Le Masurier, G., & Pangrazi, R. P. (2006). Children’s Physical Activity During Recess and Outside of School. J School Health, 76(10), 516–520. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2006.00151.x
Bell, J. F., & Daniels, S. (1990). Are Summer‐born Children Disadvantaged? The Birthdate Effect in Education. Oxford Rev Educ, 16(1), 67–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305498900160106
Berglind, D., Hansson, L., Tynelius, P., & Rasmussen, F. (2017). Levels and Patterns of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in 4-Year-Old Swedish Children. J Phys Act Health, 14(2), 117–122. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2016-0250
Boldemann, C., Blennow, M., Dal, H., Mårtensson, F., Raustorp, A., Yuen, K., & Wester, U. (2006). Impact of preschool environment upon children’s physical activity and sun exposure. Prev Med, 42(4), 301–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2005.12.006
Cardon, G. M., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. M. M. (2008). Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels. Res Q Exercise Sport, 79(3), 326–332. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2008.10599496
De Onis, M., Blössner, M., & Borghi, E. (2010). Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children. Am J Clin Nutr, 92(5), 1257–1264. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2010.29786
Dearden, L., Crawford, C., & Meghir, C. (2010). When you are born matters: the impact of date of birth on educational outcomes in England [Working Paper Series]. https://doi.org/10.1920/wp.ifs.2010.1006
Finn, K., Johannsen, N., & Specker, B. (2002). Factors associated with physical activity in preschool children. J Pediatr, 140(1), 81–85. https://doi.org/10.1067/mpd.2002.120693
Forthofer, M., Dowda, M., O’Neill, J. R., Addy, C. L., McDonald, S., Reid, L., & Pate, R. R. (2017). Effect of Child Gender and Psychosocial Factors on Physical Activity From Fifth to Sixth Grade. J Phys Act Health, 14(12), 953–958. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2016-0487
Grønholt Olesen, L., Lund Kristensen, P., Korsholm, L., Boye Koch, A., & Froberg, K. (2015). Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6-year-old preschool children. J Sport Med Phys Fit, 55(5), 513–526.
Harrison, F., Goodman, A., van Sluijs, E. M. F., Andersen, L. B., Cardon, G., Davey, R., … on behalf the ICAD collaborators. (2017). Weather and children’s physical activity; how and why do relationships vary between countries? Int J Behav Nutr Phy, 14(1), 74. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0526-7
Harrison, F., Jones, A. P., Bentham, G., van Sluijs, E. M. F., Cassidy, A., & Griffin, S. J. (2011). The impact of rainfall and school break time policies on physical activity in 9-10 year old British children: a repeated measures study. Int J Behav Nutr Phy, 8(47), https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-47
Hesketh, K. R., McMinn, A. M., Ekelund, U., Sharp, S. J., Collings, P. J., Harvey, N. C., … van Sluijs, E. M. (2014). Objectively measured physical activity in four-year-old British children: a cross-sectional analysis of activity patterns segmented across the day. Int J Behav Nutr Phy, 11(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-11-1
Jago, R., Macdonald-Wallis, C., Solomon-Moore, E., Thompson, J., L., Lawlor, D., A., & Sebire, S., J. (2017). Associations between participation in organised physical activity in the school or community outside school hours and neighbourhood play with child physical activity and sedentary time: a cross-sectional analysis of primary school-aged children from the UK. BMJ Open, 7(9). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017588
Leal, E., Aparicio, D., Luti, Y., Acosta, L., Finol, F., Rojas, E., … Velasco, M. (2009). Actividad física y enfermedad cardiovascular. 4, 17.
Lobstein, T., Baur, L., & Uauy, R. (2004). Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Obes Rev, 5(s1), 4–85. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2004.00133.x
Martin, K., Bremner, A., Salmon, J., Rosenberg, M., & Giles‐Corti, B. (2012). School and individual-level characteristics are associated with children’s moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity during school recess. Aust Nz J Publ Heal 36(5), 469–477. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-6405.2012.00914.x
Massey, W. V., Stellino, M. B., & Fraser, M. (2018). Individual and environmental correlates of school-based recess engagement. Prev Med, 11, 247–253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.07.005
Mckenzie, T. L., Sallis, J. F., Nader, P. R., Broyles, S. L., & Nelson, J. A. (1992). Anglo- and Mexican-American Preschoolers at Home and at Recess: Activity Patterns and Environmental Influences. J Dev Behav Pediatr, 13(3), 173-180. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004703-199206000-00004
Müller, J., Hoch, A.-M., Zoller, V., & Oberhoffer, R. (2018). Feasibility of Physical Activity Assessment with Wearable Devices in Children Aged 4-10 Years-A Pilot Study. Front Pediatr, 6, 5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2018.00005
Nettlefold, L., McKay, H. A., Warburton, D. E. R., McGuire, K. A., Bredin, S. S. D., & Naylor, P. J. (2011). The challenge of low physical activity during the school day: at recess, lunch and in physical education. Brit J Sport Med, 45(10), 813–819. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2009.068072
Obesity and overweight WHO. (2015). Retrieved 16 February 2019, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight
Ortega-Anta, R. M., López-Sobaler, A. M., Aparicio Vizuete, A., González Rodríguez, L. G., & Navia Lombán, B. (2016). Estudio ALADINO 2015: Estudio de vigilancia del crecimiento, alimentación, actividad física, desarrollo infantil y obesidad en España. 2015. https://doi.org/10.4321/s1139-76322011000300015
Pate, R. R., Davis, M. G., Robinson, T. N., Stone, E. J., McKenzie, T. L., & Young, J. C. (2006). Promoting Physical Activity in Children and Youth: A Leadership Role for Schools: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism (Physical Activity Committee) in Collaboration With the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young and Cardiovascular Nursing. Circulation, 114(11), 1214–1224. https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.106.177052
Ploeg, K. A. V., Wu, B., McGavock, J., & Veugelers, P. J. (2012). Physical Activity among Canadian Children on School Days and Nonschool Days. J Phys Act Health, 9(8), 1138–1145. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.9.8.1138
Ramstetter, C. L., Murray, R., & Garner, A. S. (2010). The Crucial Role of Recess in Schools. J School Health, 80(11), 517–526. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2010.00537.x
Ridgers, N. D., Salmon, J., Parrish, A.-M., Stanley, R. M., & Okely, A. D. (2012). Physical activity during school recess: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med, 43(3), 320–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.05.019
Saint-Maurice, P. F., Bai, Y., Vazou, S., & Welk, G. (2018). Youth Physical Activity Patterns During School and Out-of-School Time. Children, 5(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/children5090118
Simunek, A., Dygryn, J., Gaba, A., Jakubec, L., Stelzer, J., & Chmelik, F. (2016). Validity of Garmin Vivofit and Polar Loop for measuring daily step counts in free-living conditions in adults. Acta Gymnica, 46(3), 129–135. https://doi.org/10.5507/ag.2016.014
Vale, S., Silva, P., Santos, R., Soares-Miranda, L., & Mota, J. (2010). Compliance with physical activity guidelines in preschool children. J Sport Sci, 28(6), 603–608. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640411003702694
Van Sluijs, E. M. F., Jones, N. R., Jones, A. P., Sharp, S. J., Harrison, F., & Griffin, S. J. (2011). School-level correlates of physical activity intensity in 10-year-old children. Int J Pediatr Obes, 6(2–2), e574–e581. https://doi.org/10.3109/17477166.2010.518239
Van Stralen, M. M., Yıldırım, M., Wulp, A., te Velde, S. J., Verloigne, M., Doessegger, A., … Chinapaw, M. J. M. (2014). Measured sedentary time and physical activity during the school day of European 10- to 12-year-old children: The ENERGY project. J Sci Med Sport, 17(2), 201–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2013.04.019
World Health Organization. (2010). Recomendaciones mundiales sobre actividad física para la salud. Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789243599977_spa.pdf
World Health Organization. (2014). Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014: attaining the nine global noncommunicable diseases targets; a shared responsibility. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Zimmo, L., Farooq, A., Almudahka, F., Ibrahim, I., & Al-Kuwari, M. G. (2017). School-time physical activity among Arab elementary school children in Qatar. BMC Pediatrics, 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-017-0832-x
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.