Physical and cardiorespiratory profiles of urban schoolchildren aged 10-14 years in Douala, Cameroon
Keywords:Physical activity, Physical fitness, Sports performance, Cardiorespiratory fitness
Little information is known concerning the no-self-reported measures of physical activity among African schoolchildren despite alarming prevalence of the cardiometabolic risk factors such as overweight and obesity. This study aims to evaluate some physical and cardiorespiratory profiles among schoolchildren from two government high schools (S1, S2) in Douala, Cameroon. One hundred and seventy-six (176) schoolchildren (114 boys and 62 girls) aged 10-14 years underwent a 9 minutes run test. At the end of the test, distance covered (D), peak and recovery heart rates (Peak HR, HRR) were determined. Prior to testing session, anthropometric data (i.e. height and weight) were taken using a standard protocol and the body max index (BMI) was also calculated. The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was estimated at the end of the test. Most of schoolchildren (97%) have normal weight. But D (m) was higher compared to some of those observed in Caucasians. D for girls was significantly (p < .0001) lower than that of the boys. No significant (p > .05) variation was found in BMI, Peak HR and HRR among the schoolchildren. However, significant (p < .05) variation was detected in D for girls in S2 on a reduced track (278m) as compared to that of D for girls in S1 on a larger track (400m). Negative correlation was found between D and RPE (r = -.220, p = .003). These results present some differences on body composition, physical and cardiorespiratory profiles among Cameroonian schoolchildren in accordance with gender and space perception.
Assah, F.K., Mbanya, J.C., Ekelund, U.L.F., Wareham, N.J., Brage, S. (2011). Urbanization, physical activity and metabolic health in sub-Saharan Africa. Diabetes Care, 34, 491–6. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc10-0990
Assomo Ndemba, P.B., Mandengue, S.H., Faye Jean, Guessogo, W.R., Etoundi-Ngoa, S.L. (2012). Analysis of psychological effects of the presence of peers and space perception during the performance of the twelve minutes run test (12-MRT) in estimating maximal oxygen consumption. Int J Perform Anal Sport, 12, 282-290. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2012.11868600
Bergmann, G.G., Araujo, M.L.B., Lorenzi, T., Garlipp, D., Gaya, A. (2005). Annual alteration in the growth and health-related physical fitness of the school children. Rev Bras Cineanthropom Desempenho Hum, 7, 55-61.
Bergmann, G.G., De Araujo Bergmann M.L., Mattos de Castro, A.A., Del’corona Lorenzi, T., Dos Santos Pinheiro, E., Moreira, R.B., Carriconde Marques, A., Gaya, A. (2015). Prediction of peak oxygen uptake in adolescents from 9 minutes run/walk test. Gazz Med Ital-Arch Sci Med, 174: 1-5.
Bika Lele, E.C., Pepouomi, M.N., Temfemo, A., Mekoulou, J., Assomo Ndemba, P., Mandengue, S.H. (2018). Effet d’un effort intermittent d’intensité variable sur la variation du QT et du risque de mort subite chez des élèves camerounais. Annales de cardiologie et d’angéiologie, 67, 48-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ancard.2017.03.003
Castillo-Garzon, M.J., Ruiz, J.R., Ortega, F.B., Gutierrez-Sainz, A. (2007). A mediteranean diet is enough for health: physical fitness is an important additional contributor to health for the adults of tomorrow. World Rev Nutr Diet, 97, 114-138. https://doi.org/10.1159/000097913
Castro-Piñero, J., Ortega, F.B., Mora, J., Sjöström, M., Ruiz, J.R. (2009). Criterion related Validity of ½ mile run-walk test for estimating VO2peak in children aged 6-17 years. Int J Sports Med, 5, 366-71. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1105934
Choukem, S.P., Kamdeu-Chedeu, J., Leary, S.D., Mboue-Djieka, Y., Nebongo, D.N., Akazong, C., Mapoure, Y.N., Hamilton-Shield, J.P., Gautier, J.F., Mbanya, J.C. (2017). Overweight and obesity in children aged 3–13 years in urban Cameroon: a crosssectional study of prevalence and association with socio-economic status. BMC Obes. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40608-017-0146-4
Coleman, K.J., Healt, E.M., Alcala, I.S. (2004). Overweight and aerobic fitness in children in the United States/Mexico border region. Rev Panam Salud Publica, 15, 262-271. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1020-49892004000400007
Fetuga, M.B., Ogunlesi, T.A., Adekanmbi, A.F., Alabi, A.D. (2011). Nutritional status of semi-urban Nigerian school children using the 2007 WHO reference population. West Afr J Med, 30, 331–6.
Kvaavik, E., Klepp, K.I., Tell, G.S., Meyer, H.E., Batty, G.D. (2009). Physical fitness and physical activity at age 13 years as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors at ages 15, 25, 33, and 40 years: extended follow-up of the Oslo Youth Study. Pediatrics, 123, 80-6. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-1118
Mekoulou Ndongo, J., Assomo Ndemba, P.B., Temfemo, A., Dzudie Tamdja, A., Hongieh Abanda, M., Bika Lele, E.C., Tchoudjin, E., Guessogo, W.R., Gassina, L.G., Mandengue, S.H. (2017). Pre- and post-exercise electrocardiogram pattern modifications in apparently healthy school adolescents in Cameroon. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0071
Muthuri, S.K., Francis, C.E., Wachira, L.J., Leblanc, A.G., Sampson, M., Onywera, V.O., Trembaly, M.S. (2014). Evidence of an overweight/obesity transition among school-aged children and youth in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. PLoS One, 9, e92846. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092846
Navti, L.K., Atanga, M.B., Niba, L.L. (2017). Associations of out of school physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and socioeconomic status with weight status and adiposity of Cameroon children. BMC Obesity. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40608-017-0171-3
Navti, L.K., Ferrari, U., Tange, E., Parhofer, K.G., Bechtold-Dalla Pozza, S., Parhofer, K.G. (2014). Contribution of socioeconomic status, stature and birth weight to obesity in Sub-Saharan Africa: cross-sectional data from primary school-age children in Cameroon. BMC Public Health, 14, 320. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-320
Navti, L.K., Ferrari, U., Tange, E., Parhofer, K.G., Bechtold-DallaPozza, S. (2015). Height-obesity relationship in school children in Sub-Saharan Africa: results of a cross-sectional study in Cameroon. BMC Research Notes, 8, 98. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1073-4
Nieminen, T., Ammann, P., Rickli, H. (2009). Impact of the exercise mode on recovery after maximal exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol, 105, 247-255. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-008-0896-2
Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Castillo-Garzon, M.J., Sjostrom, M. (2008). Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health. Int J Obes (Lond), 32, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803774
Paludo, A.C., Bastista, M.B., Junior, H.S., Cyrino, E.S., Vaz Rongue, E.R. (2012). Estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents with the 9-minute run/walk test. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum, 14, 401-408.
Pelegrini, A., Silva, D.A.S., Petroski, E.L., Glaner, M.F. (2011). Health-related physical fitness in Brazilian school-children: data from the Brazil sport program. Rev Bras Med Esporte, 17, 92-96.
Pelicer, F.R., Nagamine, K.K., Faria, M.A., et al. (2016). Heath-related physical fitness in school children and adolescents. International Journal of Sports Science, 6, 19-24.
Ramos-Sepulveda, J.A., Ramerez-velez, R., Correa-Bautista, J.E., Izquierdo, M., Garcia-Hermoso, A. (2016). Physical fitness and anthropometric normative values among colombian-indian schoolchildren. BMC Public Health, 16, 96-2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3652-2
Robertson, R.J., Goss, F.L., Boer, N.F., Peoples, J.A., Foreman, A.J., Dabayebeh, I.M., Millich, N.B., Balasekarang, G., Riechman, S.E., Gallagher, J.D., Thompkins, T. (2000). Children's OMNI scale of perceived exertion: mixed gender and race validation. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32, 452-8. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200002000-00029
Ruiz, J.R., Cavero-Redondo, I., Ortega, F.B., Welk, G.J., Andersen, L.B., Martinez-Vizcaino, V. (2016). Cardiorespiratory fitness cut points to avoid cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents; what level of fitness should raise a red flag? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med, 50, 1451-1458. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095903
Schulze-Neick, I.M., Wessel, H.U., Paul, M.H. (1992). Heart rate and oxygen uptake response to exercise in children with low peak exercise heart rate. Eur J Pediatr, 151, 160-164. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01954374
Wamba, P.C., Enyong Oben, J., Cianflone, K. (2013). Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and thinness in Cameroon urban children and adolescents. J Obes, 737592. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/737592
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.