Post activation potentiation (PAP) and its application in the development of speed and explosive strength in female soccer players: A review




Explosive strength, Complex training, Female athletes, Sports performance


The presented review presents the results of current research on the use of PAP during resistance training of soccer players. Researchers who have examined the mechanism behind PAP following complex strength training, have established a relationship between post-activation potentiation and improvements in speed and explosive strength of athletes. Most of the presented papers in this review have confirmed the effectiveness of PAP in eliciting performance in tasks requiring speed, jumping ability and agility in soccer players. These studies were discussed in detail in terms of research groups, methods, training means and study results. Many of these publications have also considered the aspect of rest intervals between the conditioning exercise and the subsequent explosive activity. Most authors indicate the necessity to individualize the time of the rest interval, depending on the athletes training status, strength level and most of all on the intensity and volume of the conditioning exercise. Some scientists have also attempted to incorporate PAP into warm-up protocols, especially prior to speed and power training sessions. A two-way analysis of the impact of PAP, separately on sprint speed and power of the players. The focus was on demonstrating the positive or negative impact of activating exercises on the two variables discussed. The last part of the paper presents the conclusions drawn based on the results of the studies and suggests the objectives of future research. Most publications have documented the results for male participants, whereas little data is available regarding the use of PAP in female soccer players.


The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Poland


Download data is not yet available.


Alves JM, Rebelo AN, Abrantes C, Sampaio J. (2010). Short-term effects of complex and contrast training in soccer players vertical jump, sprint and agility abilities. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(4), 936-94.

Bangsbo J. (1994). The physiology of soccer with special reference to intense intermittent exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 619, 1-155.

Chatzopoulos Dimitris E., Charalambos J . Michailidis, Athanasios K. Giannakos, Kostas C. Alexiou, Dimitrios A. Patikas, Christos B . Antonopoulos, Christos M. Kotzamaividis (2007). Postactivation potentiation effects after heavy resistance exercise on running speed. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(4), 1278-1281.

Chelly M. S., Fathloun M., Cherif N., Ben Amar M., Tabka Z., Van Praagh E. (2009). Effects of a back squat training program on leg power, jump, and sprint performances in junior soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23, 2241-9.

Chen Z. R., Lo S. L., Wang M. H., Yu C. F., Peng H. T. (2017). Can Different Complex Training Improve the Individual Phenomenon of Post-Activation Potentiation? Journal of Human Kinetics, 12(56), 167-175.

Chycki J., Golas A., Halz M., Maszczyk A., Toborek M., Zajac A. (2018). Chronic Ingestion of Sodium and Potassium Bicarbonate, with Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium Citrate Improves Anaerobic Performance in Elite Soccer Players. Nutrients, 1, 10(11).

Gago P., Arndt A., Ekblom M. (2017). Post Activation Potentation of the Plantarflexors: implications of knee angle variation. Journal of Human Kinetics, 57, 29-38.

Golas A., Maszczyk A., Zając A., Mikołajec K., Stastny P. (2016). Optimizing post activation potentiation for explosive activities in competitive sports. Journal of Human Kinetics, 52, 95-106.

Golas A., Wilk M., Stastny P., Maszczyk A., Pajerska K., Zając A. (2017a). Optimizing half squat post activation potential load in squat jump training for eliciting relative maximal power in ski jumpers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31, 3010-3017.

Golas A., Zwierzchowska A., Maszczyk A., Wilk M., Stastny P., Zając A. (2017b). Neuromuscular control during the bench press movement in an elite disabled and able-bodied athlete. Journal of Human Kinetics, 60, 209-215.

Golas A., Maszczyk A., Wilk M., Stastny P., Strońska K., Studencki M., Zając A. (2018). Muscular activity patterns of female and male athletes during the flat bench press. Biology of Sport, 35, 2, 175-179.

García-Pinillos F., Martínez-Amat A., Hita-Contreras F., Martínez-López E. J., Latorre-Román P. A. (2014). Effects of a contrast training program without external load on vertical jump, kicking speed, sprint, and agility of young soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(9), 2452-2456.

Herzog W., Schappacher G., DuVall M., Herzog J. A. (2016). Residual force enhancement following eccentric contractions: a new mechanism involving titin. Physiology (Bethesda), 31(4), 300-12.

Hodgson M., Docherty D., Robbins D. (2005). Post-Activation Potentiation Underlying Physiology and Implications for Motor Performance. Sports Medicine, 35(7), 585-595.

Dello Iacono A., Seitz L .B. (2018). Hip thrust-based PAP effects on sprint performance of soccer players: heavy-loaded versus optimum-power development protocols. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(20), 2375-2382.

Krol H., Golas A. (2017). Effect of Barbell Weight on the Structure of the Flat Bench Press. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(5), 1321-1337.

Low D., Harsley P., Peart D., Shaw M. (2015). The effect of heavy resistance exercise on repeated sprint performance in youth athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(10), 1028-1034.

Nealer A. L., Dunnick D. D., Malyszek K. K., Wong M. A., Costa P. B., Coburn J. W., Brown L. E. (2017). Influence of rest intervals after assisted sprinting on bodyweight sprint times in female collegiate soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(1), 88-94.

Mola J., Bruce-Low S., Burnet S. (2013). Optimal recovery time for post-activation potentation in professional soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(6), 1529-1537.

Nickerson B., Mangine G., Williams T., Martinez I. (2018). Effect of cluster set warm-up configurations on sprint performance in collegiate male soccer players. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 43(6), 625-630.

Requena B, Sáez-Sáez de Villarreal E., Gapeyeva H., Ereline J., García I., Pääsuke M. (2011). Relationship between postactivation Potentiation of knee extensor muscles, Sprinting and vertical jumping performance In professional soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(2), 367-373.

Rhibi F., Ghram A., Pagaduan J., Selami M., Abderrahmann A. B. (2017). Short-term maximal performance depend on post-activation potentation stimuli type and recovery period. Sport Sciences for Health, pp. 1-9.

Sale D., (2004). Postactivation potentiation: role in performance. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2004, 38, 386-387.

Stieg J., Faulkinbury K. J., Brown L. E., Coburn J. W., Judelson D. A. (2011). Acute effects of depth jump volume on vertical jump performance in collegiate women soccer players. Kinsiology, 43(10), 25-30.

Sygulla K. S., Fountaine J. F. (2014). Acute post-activation potentation effects in NCAA Division II Female Athletes. International Journal of Exercise Science, 7(3), 212-219.

Till K. A., Cooke C. (2009). The effects of postactivation potentation on sprint and jump performance of male academy soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(7), 1960-1967.

Tillin Neale A., Bishop D. (2009). Factors Modulating Post-Activation Potentiation and its Effect on Performance of Subsequent Explosive Activities. Sports Medicine, 39(2), 147-166.

Titton A., Franchini E. (2017). Postactivation potentation in elite young soccer players. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 3(2), 153-159.

Tsimachidis C., Patikas D., Galazoulas Ch., Bassa E., Kotzamandis Ch. (2013). The post-activation potentation effect on sprint performance after combined resistant/sprint training in junior basketball players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(10), 1117-1124.

Wilk M, Krzysztofik M, Gepfert M, Poprzecki S, Gołaś A, Maszczyk A. (2018). Technical and training related aspects of resistance training using blood flow restriction in competitive sport - A review. Journal of Human Kinetics, 31(65), 249-260.

Wilk M., Gołaś A., Krzysztofik M., Nawrocka M., Zając A. (2019) The effects of eccentric cadence on power and velocity of the bar during the concentric phase of the bench press movement. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine,18, 191-197.

Wilk M., Gepfert M., Krzysztofik M., Gołaś A., Mostowik A., Maszczyk A., Zając A. (2019b). The influence of grip width on training volume during the bench press with different movement tempos. Journal of Human Kinetics, 68, 131-140.

Vanderka M., Krcmar M., Longova K., Walker S. (2015). Acute effects of loaded half-squat jumps on sprint running speed in track and field athletes and soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(6), 1540-1546.

Yetter M., Moir G. L. (2008). The acute effects of heavy back and front squats on speed during forty-meter sprint trials. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(1), 159-65.


Statistics RUA



How to Cite

Pajerska, K., Zajac, T., Mostowik, A., Mrzyglod, S., & Golas, A. (2021). Post activation potentiation (PAP) and its application in the development of speed and explosive strength in female soccer players: A review. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 16(1), 122–135.



Review Paper