Analysis of power output and bar velocity during various techniques of the bench press among women
Keywords:Resistance exercise, Movement tempo, Close-grip, Wide-grip, Strength
Background: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the wide grip bench press (WGBP) and the close grip bench press (CGBP) on power output and bar velocity changes using a variable tempo of movement (6/0/X/0 vs. 2/0/X/0) in a group of female athletes. Objective: Twenty females were enrolled in the study (age 26.6 ± 2.6, body mass 54.4 ± 7.2 kg, RT experience 2.5 ± 0.94 years; CGBP 1RM 55.2 ± 7.5 kg; WGBP 1RM 52.9 ± 6.5 kg). Method: Participants performed two sets of three repetitions of the bench press (BP) at 70% 1RM with different grip widths (WGBP or CGBP) and different tempos of movement (2/0/X/0 or 6/0/X/0). During each test, the following variables were registered: mean power (MP), peak power (PP), mean velocity (MV), and peak velocity (PV). Results: The repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences between analysed variables for MV, PV and PP. The post hoc Tukey showed significant differences between WGBPSLOW and WGBPFAST for MV (p < .01) and PV (p < .01), significant differences between WGBPSLOW and CGBPFAST for PP (p < .05), MV (p < .01) and PV (p < .05). Finally, the study showed significant differences between CGBPSLOW and CGBPFAST for MV (p < .05). Conclusion: The present research showed that the movement tempo significantly influenced the level of power output and bar velocity during the BP. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the type of grip width during the BP is not a factor significantly affecting the level of power output and bar velocity.
Amasay, T., Mier, C. M., Foley, K. K., & Carswell T. L. (2016). Gender differences in performance of equivalently loaded push-up and bench press exercises. The Journal of Sport, 5, 4.
Argus, C. K., Gill, N. D., Keogh, J. W. L., & Hopkins, W. G. (2014). Assessing the variation in the load that produces maximal upper-body power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28, 240–244. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e318295d1c9
Baker, D., Nance S., & Moore, M. (1995). The load that maximizes the average mechanical power output during explosive bench press throws in highly trained athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 15, 20–24. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200102000-00004
Barnett, C., Kippers, V., & Turner, P. (1995). Effects of variations of the bench press exercise on the EMG activity of five shoulder muscles. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 9, 222–227. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-199511000-00003
Bishop, P., Cureton, K., & Collins, M. (1987). Sex difference in muscular strength in equally-trained men and women. Ergonomics, 30, 675–687. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140138708969760
Cronin, J. B., McNair, P. J., & Marshall, R. N. (2001). Magnitude and decay of stretch-induced enhancement of power output. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 84, 575–581. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210100433
Cronin, J. B., & Hansen, K. T. (2005). Strength and power predictors of sports speed. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19, 349–357. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200505000-00019
Cronin, J. B, & Owen, G. J. (2004). Upper-body strength and power assessment in women using a chest pass. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18, 401–404. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200408000-00001
Gołaś, A., Wilk, M., Stastny, P., Maszczyk, A., Pajerska, K., & Zając, A. (2017). Optimizing Half Squat Post Activation Potential Load In Squat Jump Training For Eliciting Relative Maximal Power In Ski Jumpers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(11), 3010-3017. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001917
Haizlip, K. M., Harrison, B. C., & Leinwand, L. A. (2015). Sex-based differences in skeletal muscle kinetics and fiber-type composition. Physiology (Bethesda), 30, 30–39. https://doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00024.2014
Hicks, A. L., Kent-Braun, J., & Ditor, D. S. (2001). Sex differences in human skeletal muscle fatigue. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 29, 109–112. https://doi.org/10.1097/00003677-200107000-00004
Hunter, G. R., Seelhorst, D., & Snyder, S. (2003). Comparison of metabolic and heart rate responses to super slow vs. traditional resistance training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17, 76–81. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200302000-00013
Keeler, L. K., Finkelstein, L. H., Miller, W., & Fernhall, B. (2001). Early-phase adaptations of traditional-speed vs. super slow resistance training on strength and aerobic capacity in sedentary individuals. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 15, 309–314. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200108000-00008
Krzysztofik, M., Wilk, M., Golas, A., Lockie, R., G., Maszczyk, A., & Zając, A. (2019). Does Eccentric-Only and Concentric-Only Activation Increase Power Output? Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 16. (Epub ahead of print). https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0000000000002131
Miller, A. E. J., MacDougall, J. D., Tarnopolsky, M. A., & Sale, D. G. (1993). Gender differences in strength and muscle fiber characteristics. European Journal Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 66, 254 –262. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00235103
Miller, R. M., Freitas, E. D., Heishman, A. D., Kaur, J., Koziol, K. J., Galletti, B. A., Bemben, M. G. (2019). Maximal power production as a function of sex and training status. Biology of Sport, 36, 31–37. https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2018.78904
Newton, R. U., Murphy, A. J., Humphries, B. J., Wilson, G. J., Kraemer, W. J., & Häkkinen, H. A. (1997). Influence of load and stretch shortening cycle on the kinematics, kinetics and muscle activation that occurs during explosive upper-body movements. European Journal Appllied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 75, 333–342. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050169
Lockie, R. G., Callaghan, S. J., Moreno, M. R., Risso, F. G., Liu, T. M., Stage, A. A., Birmingham-Babauta, S. A., Stokes, J. J., Giuliano, D. V., Lazar, A., Davis, D. L., & Orjalo, A. J. (2017a). An investigation of the mechanics and sticking region of a one-repetition maximum close-grip bench press versus the traditional bench press. Sports (Basel), 5, 46. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030046
Lockie, R. G., Callaghan, S. J., Moreno, M. R., Risso, F. G., Liu, T. M., Stage, A. A., Birmingham-Babauta, S. A., Stokes, J. J., Giuliano, D. V., Lazar, A., Davis, D. L., & Orjalo, A. J. (2017b). Relationships between mechanical variables in the traditional and close-grip bench press. Journal of Human Kinetics, 60, 19–28. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0109
Lockie, R. G., Callaghan, S. J., Orjalo, A. J., & Moreno, M. R. (2018). Loading range for the development of peak power in the close-grip bench press versus the traditional bench press. Sports (Basel), 6, 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6030097
Lovell, D., Mason, D., Delphinus, E., Eagles, A., Shewrins, S., & McLellan, C. (2011). Does upper body strength and power influence upper body performance in men and women? International Journal of Sports Medicine, 32, 771–775. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1277206
Roepstorff, C., Donsmark, M., Thiele, M., Vistisen, B., Stewart, G., Vissing, K., Schjerling, P., Hardie, D. G., Galbo, H., & Kiens, B. (2006). Sex differences in hormone-sensitive lipase expression, activity, and phosphorylation in skeletal muscle at rest and during exercise. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism, 291, E1106–14. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00097.2006
Saeterbakken, A. H., Mo, D. A., Scott, S., & Andersen, V. (2017). The effects of bench press variations in competitive athletes on muscle activity and performance. Journal of Human Kinetics, 57, 61–71. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0047
Sakamoto, A., & Sinclair, P. J. (2006). Effect of movement velocity on the relationship between training load and the number of repetitions of bench press. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20, 523–527. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200608000-00011
Staron, R. S., Hagerman, F. C., Hikida, R. S., Murray, T. F., Hostler, D. P., Crill, M. T., Ragg, K. E., & Toma, K. (2000). Fiber type composition of the vastus lateralis muscle of young men and women. The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society, 48, 623–629. https://doi.org/10.1177/002215540004800506
Stock, M. S., Beck, T. W., Defreitas, J. M., & Dillon, M. A. (2010). Relationships among peak power output, peak bar velocity, and mechanomyographic amplitude during the free-weight bench press exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, 1309–1317. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2010.499440
Thomas, G. A., Kraemer, W. J., Spiering, B. A., Volek, J. S., Anderson, J. M., & Maresh, C. M. (2007). Maximal power at different percentages of one repetition maximum: Influence of resistance and gender. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21, 336 342. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200705000-00008
Torrejón, A., Balsalobre-Fernández, C., Haff, G. G., & García-Ramos, A. (2018). The load-velocity profile differs more between men and women than between individuals with different strength levels. Sports Biomechanics, 18, 245–255. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2018.1433872
Van den Tillaar, R., Saeterbakken, A. H., & Ettema, G. (2012). Is the occurrence of the sticking region the result of diminishing potentiation in bench press? Journal of Sports Sciencs, 30, 591–599. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.658844
Wagner, L. L., Evans, S. A., Weir, J. P., Housh, T. J., & Johnson, G. O. (1992). The effect of grip width on bench press performance. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 8, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsb.8.1.1
Welle, S., Tawil, R., & Thornton, C. A. (2008). Sex-related differences in gene expression in human skeletal muscle. PLoS One, 3, e1385. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001385
Wilk, M., Gepfert, M., Krzysztofik, M., Gołaś, A., Mostowik, A., Maszczyk, A., & Zając, A. (2019a). The Influence of Grip Width on Training Volume During the Bench Press with Different Movement Tempos. Journal of Human Kinetics 68, 49-57. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2019-0055
Wilk, M., Gołaś, A., Krzysztofik, M., & Zając, A. (2019b). The effects of eccentric cadence on power and velocity of the bar during the concentric phase of the bench press movement. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 18(2), 191–197.
Wilk, M., Golas, A., Stastny, P., Nawrocka, M., Krzysztofik, M., & Zając, A. (2018a). Does tempo of resistance exercise impact training volume? Journal of Human Kinetics 62, 241–250. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2018-0034
Wilk M, Krzysztofik M, Drozd M, Zając A. (2019c). Changes of power output and velocity during successive sets of the bench press with different duration of eccentric movement. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 8, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0164
Wilk, M., Petr, M., Krzysztofik, M., Zając, A., & Stastny P. (2018b). Endocrine response to high intensity barbell squats performed with constant movement tempo and variable training volume. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 39(4), 342-348.
Wilk, M., Stastny, P., Golas, A., Nawrocka, M., Jelen, K., Zając, A., & Tufano, J. (2018c). Physiological responses to different neuromuscular movement task during eccentric bench press. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 39(1), 10 –107.
Young, K. P., Haff, G. G., Newton, R. U., Gabbett, T. J., & Sheppard, J. M. (2015). Assessment and monitoring of ballistic and maximal upper-body strength qualities in athletes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10, 232–237. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2014-0073
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.