Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Youth athletes' developmental outcomes by age, gender, and type of sport

Koray Kilic, Mustafa Levent Ince

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the athletes’ perceived developmental outcomes of competence, confidence, connection and character (the 4 Cs) in a competitive youth sport context with respect to age groups (12 – 14 vs 15 – 18-year-old), gender (girls and boys) and sport type (individual vs. team). Participants were 314 athletes (173 girls, 141 boys) and 31 coaches (5 Women, 26 Men) from artistic gymnastics, basketball, football, swimming, tennis, track and field, and volleyball. Data were collected by the adapted and validated form of Positive Youth Development Measurement Toolkit. According to the findings, older group of athletes (15 – 18 years of age) had lower scores than their younger counterparts (12 – 14 years of age) in all of the developmental outcomes. Girls scored lower in competence outcome, while boys had lower scores in connection and character outcomes. Moreover, team sport athletes had lower scores in competence outcome (p < .05). The findings were discussed with the extant literature, and programmatic suggestions for future studies were provided.


Keywords

Youth sport; Athlete outcomes; Coaching effectiveness; Program evaluation; Sport coaching

References

Altintas, A., Cetinkalp, Z. K., & Asci, F. H. (2012). Evaluating the Coach-Athlete Relationship: Validity and Reliability Study. Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences, 23(3), 119-128.

Anshel, M. H. (2004). Sources of disordered eating patterns between ballet dancers and non-dancers. Journal of sport behavior, 27(2), 115.

Balcikanli, G. S. (2013). The Turkish adaptation of the Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Sport Scale (PABSS). International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(18), 271-276.

Balyi, I., Way, R., & Higgs, C. (2013). Long-term athlete development. Human Kinetics.

Barynina, I. I., & Vaitsekhovskii, S. M. (1992). The aftermath of early sports specialization for highly qualified swimmers. Fitness and Sports Review International, 27(4), 132-133.

Behringer, M., vom Heede, A., Yue, Z., & Mester, J. (2010). Effects of resistance training in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics, peds-2010. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-0445

Bredemeier, B. J., & Shields, D. L. (1986). Moral growth among athletes and nonathletes: A comparative analysis. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 147(1), 7-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.1986.9914475

Brislin, R., W. (1980). “Translation and content analysis of oral and written material” In Triandis, H.C. & Berry, J.W., (Eds), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology, Boston: Allyn & Bacon 1. pp.389-444.

Byrne, D., Clore, G. L., & Smeaton, G. (1986). The Attraction Hypothesis. Do Similar Attitudes Affect Anything? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1167–1170. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1167

Carron, A. V., Hausenblas, H. A., & Eys, M. A. (2005). Group dynamics in sport. Fitness Information Technology.

Dunn, J. C., Dunn, J. G., & Bayduza, A. (2007). Perceived athletic competence, sociometric status, and loneliness in elementary school children. Journal of Sport Behavior, 30(3).

Coakley, J. (2016). Positive youth development through sport: Myths, beliefs, and realities. In N. L. Holt, N. L. Holt (Eds.), Positive youth development through sport (pp. 21-33). New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315709499-3

Coakley, J., & White, A. (1992). Making decisions: Gender and sport participation among British adolescents. Sociology of sport journal, 9(1), 20-35. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.9.1.20

Conroy, D. E., Silva, J. M., Newcomer, R. R., Walker, B. W., & Johnson, M. S. (2001). Personal and participatory socializers of the perceived legitimacy of aggressive behavior in sport. Aggressive behavior, 27(6), 405-418. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.1026

Côté, J., Bruner, M., Erickson, K., Strachan, L., & Fraser-Thomas, J. (2010). Athlete development and coaching. Sports coaching: Professionalisation and practice, 63-84.

Côté, J., & Gilbert, W. (2009). An integrative definition of coaching effectiveness and expertise. International journal of sports science & coaching, 4(3), 307-323. https://doi.org/10.1260/174795409789623892

Côté, J., Strachan, L., & Fraser-Thomas, J. (2007). Participation, personal development, and performance through youth sport. In Positive youth development through sport (pp. 48-60). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315709499-6

Cox, R. H., Martens, M. P., & Russell, W. D. (2003). Measuring anxiety in athletics: the revised competitive state anxiety inventory–2. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 25(4), 519-533. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.25.4.519

Duda, J. L., Olson, L. K., & Templin, T. J. (1991). The relationship of task and ego orientation to sportsmanship attitudes and the perceived legitimacy of injurious acts. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 62(1), 79-87. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1991.10607522

Dunn, J. C., Dunn, J. G., & Bayduza, A. (2007). Perceived athletic competence, sociometric status, and loneliness in elementary school children. Journal of Sport Behavior, 30(3), 249.

Eccles, J. S., & Barber, B. L. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: What kind of extracurricular involvement matters? Journal of adolescent research, 14(1), 10-43. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558499141003

Elliot, D. L., Goldberg, L., & Kuehl, K. S. (2010). Young women’s anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Sports Medicine, 40(5), 367-376. https://doi.org/10.2165/11531340-000000000-00000

Field, A. P. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS: (and sex and drugs and rock 'n' roll). Los Angeles [i.e. Thousand Oaks, Calif.]; London: SAGE Publications, c2009.

Fraser-Thomas, J. L., Côté, J., & Deakin, J. (2005). Youth sport programs: an avenue to foster positive youth development. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 10(1), 19. https://doi.org/10.1080/1740898042000334890

Gilbert, W., Gallimore, R., & Trudel, P. (2009). A learning community approach to coach development in youth sport. Journal of coaching education, 2(2), 3-23. https://doi.org/10.1123/jce.2.2.3

Gould, D., Tuffey, S., Udry, E., & Loehr, J. (1996). Burnout in competitive junior tennis players: I. A quantitative psychological assessment. The sport psychologist, 10(4), 322-340. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.10.4.322

Henriksen, K., Stambulova, N., & Roessler, K. K. (2010). Holistic approach to athletic talent development environments: A successful sailing milieu. Psychology of sport and exercise, 11(3), 212-222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.10.005

Hill, J. P., & Lynch, M. E. (1983). The intensification of gender-related role expectations during early adolescence. In Girls at puberty (pp. 201-228). Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-0354-9_10

Hollings, S. C., Mallett, C. J., & Hume, P. A. (2014). The transition from elite junior track-and-field athlete to successful senior athlete: why some do, why others don't. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 9(3), 457-471. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.9.3.457

Horn, T. S. (2008). Coaching effectiveness in the sport domain. In T. S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology., 3rd ed. (pp. 239–267). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Horn, T.S., Lox, C. & Labrador, F. (2010). The self- fulfilling prophecy theory: When coaches’ expectations become reality. In J.M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (6th ed.) (pp. 81–105). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Jowett, S. (2017). Coaching effectiveness: the coach–athlete relationship at its heart. Current opinion in psychology, 16, 154-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.05.006

Jowett, S., & Nezlek, J. (2012). Relationship interdependence and satisfaction with important outcomes in coach–athlete dyads. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 29(3), 287-301. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407511420980

Jowett, S., & Ntoumanis, N. (2004). The coach–athlete relationship questionnaire (CART‐Q): Development and initial validation. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 14(4), 245-257. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2003.00338.x

Kavussanu, M., & Boardley, I. D. (2009). The prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31(1), 97-117. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.31.1.97

Kilic, K., & Ince, M. L. (2015). Use of sports science knowledge by Turkish coaches. International journal of exercise science, 8(1), 21.

Kilic, K., & Ince, M. L. (2016). Examination of Comprehensibility of Positive Youth Development Scales for Sport by 8 – 14 Years Old Children and Youth Athletes. Niğde University Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, 10(2).

Kilic, K., & Ince, M. L. (2017a). Reliability of Turkish Adapted Form of Sport Competence Inventory. Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences, 28(4), 167-175.

Kilic, K., & Ince, M. L. (2017b). A Validity and Reliability Study of the Self-Confidence Subscale of the Revised Competitive State Anxiety-2. Ankara University Faculty of Sport Sciences Spormetre. 15 (4), 135-142.

Kin-Isler, A., Asci, F. H., Altintas, A., & Guven-Karahan, B. (2009). Physical activity levels and patterns of 11-14-year-old Turkish adolescents. Adolescence, 44(176), 1005.

Larson, R. W. (2000). Toward a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55(1), 170.

Leite, N., Baker, J., & Sampaio, J. (2009). Paths to expertise in Portuguese national team athletes. Journal of sports science & medicine, 8(4), 560.

Lyle, J. (2002). Sports coaching concepts: A framework for coaches’ behaviour. Routledge. London, Pages.

Maffulli, N., Baxter-Jones, A. D. G., & Grieve, A. (2005). Long term sport involvement and sport injury rate in elite young athletes. Archives of disease in childhood, 90(5), 525-527. https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2004.057653

Mallett, C., & Côté, J. (2006). Beyond winning and losing: Guidelines for evaluating high performance coaches. The Sport Psychologist, 20(2), 213-221. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.20.2.213

Moesch, K., Hauge, M. L. T., Wikman, J. M., & Elbe, A. M. (2013). Making it to the top in team sports: Start later, intensify, and be determined!. Talent development & excellence, 5(2).

Pehlivan, Z. (2013). The reasons of dropout and continuation to sports of the participants of interschools sports competitions. Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences, 24(3), 209-225.

Rhind, D. J. A., Jowett, S., & Yang, S. X. (2012). A comparison of athletes' perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship in team and individual sports. Journal of Sport Behavior, 35(4), 433.

Soares, J., Antunnes, H., & van den Tillaar, R. (2013). A comparison between boys and girls about the motives for the participation in school sport. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 13(3), 303.

Shields, D. L. L., & Bredemeier, B. J. L. (1995). Character development and physical activity. Human Kinetics Publishers.

Strachan, L., Côté, J., & Deakin, J. (2009). An evaluation of personal and contextual factors in competitive youth sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21(3), 340-355. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200903018667

Thapar, A., Collishaw, S., Pine, D. S., & Thapar, A. K. (2012). Depression in adolescence. The Lancet, 379(9820), 1056-1067. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(11)60871-4

Trudel, P., Gilbert, W., & Werthner, P. (2010). Coach education effectiveness. Sport coaching: Professionalisation and practice, 135-152.

Turkish Directorate of Youth & Sports (2017). Statistics. Retrieved May, 21, 2018, from http://ankara.gsb.gov.tr/Sayfalar/175/105/Istatistikler

Vaeyens, R., Lenoir, M., Williams, A. M., & Philippaerts, R. M. (2008). Talent identification and development programmes in sport. Sports medicine, 38(9), 703-714. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838090-00001

Vierimaa, M., Erickson, K., Côté, J., & Gilbert, W. (2012). Positive youth development: A measurement framework for sport. International journal of sports science & coaching, 7(3), 601-614. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.7.3.601

Weiss, M. R., & Bredemeier, B. J. L. (1990). Moral development in sport. Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 18(1), 331-378. https://doi.org/10.1249/00003677-199001000-00015

Wigfield, A., Byrnes, J. P., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Development during early and middle adolescence. Handbook of educational psychology, 2, 87-113. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203874790.ch5

Willis, G. B. (2015). Analysis of the cognitive interview in questionnaire design. Oxford University Press.

Yaprak, P., & Amman, M. T. (2009). Women in sports and their problems. Turkish Kickboxing Federation Journal of Sport Science, 2(1), 39-49.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2021.161.19





Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.