Monitoring physical performance and training load in young surf athletes
We aimed to study physical performance and monitor training load (both internal and external) during 12 weeks (3 times per week) and analyse the hypothetical association between physical performance and training load of competitive junior surfers. Twelve competitive surfers voluntarily participated (aged 16.00 ± 1.00y) and completed anthropometric and 8 physical performance tests including weight-bearing dorsiflexion test, functional movement screen, star excursion balance test, squat jump and countermovement jump, sprint & endurance paddling, and breath-hold capacity. Moreover, athletes were monitored by using a heart rate (HR) sensor and global position system (GPS) during each training session (n = 36). For internal load (IL), HR, rating of perceived exertion RPE, duration*RPE were used as variables and for external load (EL), duration, total distance, average and maximum speed and pace were considered for analysis. No significant correlations were found between physical performance tests and the training load variables. Significant correlations were found between IL (time*RPE), total distance (r = .58, p < .01), maximum speed (r = .43, p = .04) and duration (r = .60, p < .01). The HR was positively associated with average speed (r = .45, p = .04), pace (r = .43, p = .04), maximum speed (r = .64, p < .01). Total distance, average HR and average speed significantly predicted IL during training F(4.18) = 3.17; p = .04; R2 = .48. Data suggests that subjective instruments like RPE seems to be a good instrument to assess the training load in surf training. In terms of training for surfing, maximum speed seems to be a determinant factor in the estimation of IL perception.
Axel, T. A., Crussemeyer, J. A., Dean, K., & Young, D. E. (2018). Field Test Performance of Junior Competitive Surf Athletes following a Core Strength Training Program. International Journal of Exercise Science, 11(6), 696–707.
Barlow, M. J., Gresty, K., Findlay, M., Cooke, C. B., & Davidson, M. a. (2014). The effect of wave conditions and surfer ability on performance and the physiological response of recreational surfers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 28(10), 2946–2953. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000491
Blas, X. de, Pedullés, J. M., Lopez del Amo, J. L., & Guerra-Balic, M. (2012). Creation and Validation of Chronojump-Boscosystem: A Free Tool to Measure Vertical Jumps. International Journal of Sports Science. https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2012.03004
Borg, G. (1998). Perceived exertion and pain scales. Champaign IL, USA: Human Kinetics.
Bourdon, P. C., Cardinale, M., Murray, A., Gastin, P., Kellmann, M., Varley, M. C., … Cable, N. T. (2017). Monitoring Athlete Training Loads: Consensus Statement. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12(Suppl 2), S2-161-S2-170. https://doi.org/10.1123/IJSPP.2017-0208
Calatayud, J., Martin, F., Gargallo, P., García‐Redondo, J., Colado, J. C., & Marín, P. J. (2015). The validity and reliability of a new instrumented device for measuring ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 10(2), 197–202.
Chen, M. J., Fan, X., & Moe, S. T. (2002). Criterion-related validity of the Borg ratings of perceived exertion scale in healthy individuals: a meta-analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20(11), 873–899. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404102320761787
Cook, G., Burton, L., Hoogenboom, B. J. arbara, & Voight, M. (2014). Functional Movement Screening: The use of fundamental movements as an assessment of function - Part 2. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 9(4), 549–563. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1382055
Farley, Abbiss, C. R. ., & Sheppard, J. M. (2017). Performance analysis of surfing: A review. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001442
Farley, O., Harris, K. N., & Kilding, E. A. (2012). Anaerobic and Aerobic Fitness Profiling of Competive Surfers. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(8), 2243–2248. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823a3c81
Farley, O. R. L., Coyne, J., Secomb, J. L., Lundgren, L., Tran, T. T., Sheppard, J. M., & Abbiss, C. (2013). Comparison of the 400 Metre Timed Endurance Surf Paddle Between Elite Competitive Surfers, Competitive Surfers and Recreational Surfers. J. Aust. Strength Cond, 21(S2), 125–127.
Farley, O. R. L., Harris, N. K., & Kilding, A. E. (2012). Physiological demands of competitive surfing. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 26(7), 1887–1896. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182392c4b
Farley, O. R. L., Secomb, J. L., Parsonage, J. R., Lundgren, L. E., Abbiss, C. R., & Sheppard, J. M. (2016). Five Weeks of Sprint and High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Paddling Performance in Adolescent Surfers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(9), 2446–2452. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001364
Fernandez-Gamboa, I., Yanci, J., Granados, C., & Camara, J. (2017). Comparison of anthropometry and lower limb power qualities according to different levels and ranking position of competitive surfers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001565
Fernández-Gamboa, I., Yanci, J., Granados, C., Freemyer, B., & Cámara, J. (2017). Competition Load Described By Objective And Subjective Methods During A Surfing Championship. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 1. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001973
Gabbett, T. J., Nassis, G. P., Oetter, E., Pretorius, J., Johnston, N., Medina, D., … Ryan, A. (2017, June). The athlete monitoring cycle: A practical guide to interpreting and applying training monitoring data. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(20), 1451–1452. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-097298
Giles, D., Draper, N., & Neil, W. (2016). Validity of the Polar V800 heart rate monitor to measure RR intervals at rest. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(3), 563–571. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-015-3303-9
Gonzalo‐Skok, O., Serna, J., Rhea, M. R., & Marín, P. J. (2015). Relationships between functional movement tests and performance tests in young elite male basketball players. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 10(5), 628–638.
Gribble, P. A., Hertel, J., & Plisky, P. (2012). Using the Star Excursion Balance Test to Assess Dynamic Postural-Control Deficits and Outcomes in Lower Extremity Injury: A Literature and Systematic Review. Journal of Athletic Training, 47(3), 339–357. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-47.3.08
Hernández-Vicente, A., Santos-Lozano, A., De Cocker, K., & Garatachea, N. (2016). Validation study of Polar V800 accelerometer. Annals of Translational Medicine, 4(15), 278–278. https://doi.org/10.21037/atm.2016.07.16
Hopkins, K. D., Hopkins, B. R., & Glass, G. V. (1996). Basic statistics for the behavioral sciences. Book, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Impellizzeri, F. M., Rampinini, E., & Marcora, S. M. (2005). Physiological assessment of aerobic training in soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(6), 583–592. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400021278
Lundgren, L., Tran, T. T., Farley, O., Secomb, J., Nimphius, S., Newton, R. U., & Sheppard, J. M. (2013). Ankle Range of Motion Among Surfing Athletes. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, 21(S2), 121–124.
Mendez-Villanueva, A., Bishop, D., & Hamer, P. (2006). Activity Profile of World-Class Professional Surfers During Competition: A Case Study. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(3), 477. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200608000-00004
Méndez-Villanueva, A., Perez-Landaluce, J., Bishop, D., Fernandez-García, B., Ortolano, R., Leibar, X., & Terrados, N. (2005). Upper body aerobic fitness comparison between two groups of competitive surfboard riders. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 8(1), 43–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(05)80023-4
Pietiläinen, K. H., Kaye, S., Karmi, A., Suojanen, L., Rissanen, A., & Virtanen, K. A. (2013). Agreement of bioelectrical impedance with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and MRI to estimate changes in body fat, skeletal muscle and visceral fat during a 12-month weight loss intervention. British Journal of Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114512003698
Psycharakis, S. G. (2011). A Longitudinal Analysis on the Validity and Reliability of Ratings of Perceived Exertion for Elite Swimmers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(2), 420–426. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181bff58c
Pueo, B., Lipinska, P., Jiménez-Olmedo, J. M., Zmijewski, P., & Hopkins, W. G. (2017). Accuracy of jump-mat systems for measuring jump height. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0511
Secomb, J. L., Farley, O. R. L., Lundgren, L., Tran, T. T., King, A., Nimphius, S., & Sheppard, J. M. (2015). Associations Between the Performance of Scoring Manoeuvres and Lower-Body Strength and Power in Elite Surfers. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 10(5), 911–918. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9518.104.22.1681
Secomb, J. L., Farley, O. R. L., Lundgren, L., Tran, T. T., Nimphius, S., & Sheppard, J. M. (2013). Comparison of the Sprint Paddling Performance Between Competitive Male and Female, 21, 118–120.
Secomb, J. L., Sheppard, J. M., & Dascombe, B. J. (2015). Time-motion analysis of a 2-hour surfing training session. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10(1), 17–22. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2014-0002
Sheppard, J., Walshe, P., & Coyne, J. (2012). A brief examination of strength and paddle- conditioning considerations for competitive surfers, 91–93. Retrieved from http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ecuworks2012/234
Silva, B., & Clemente, F. M. (2017). Physical performance characteristics between male and female youth surfing athletes. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.17.08036-7
Silva, B., Clemente, F. M., & Lourenco Martins, F. M. (2017). Associations between Functional Movement Screen scores and performance variables in surf athletes. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07154-7
Tran, T. T., Lundgren, L., Secomb, J., Farley, O. R. L., Haff, G. G., Seitz, L. B., … Sheppard, J. M. (2015). Comparison of physical capacities between nonselected and selected elite male competitive surfers for the national junior team. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10(2), 178–182. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2014-0222
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.