Race analyses among Winter Olympic sliding sports: A cross-sectional study of the 2018/2019 World Cups and World Championships
Keywords:Olympic sports, Bobsleigh, Luge, Skeleton, Performance analysis
Studies about the three Olympic sliding sports are sparse, little is known other than factors related to start performance. Therefore, this study aimed to add to the current literature by analysing the race characteristics of the nine different events. A non-experimental retrospective method was applied to analyse all races of the 2018/2019 season. A total of 3371 race trials sampled across the sports of bobsleigh (n = 1105), luge (n = 1401) and skeleton (n = 865). Split rankings were correlated to finish rankings using Pearson product-moment correlation to analyse the relationship of sectional rankings and race outcome throughout the race. The results exhibited sequentially increasing correlation coefficients in all events. Yet, there were distinctive characteristics differentiating the sports. Bobsleigh illustrated correlations coefficients that at a minimum were very large (r ≥ .71) among all split rankings. Luge and skeleton depicted lower correlations for split 1 (r = .30 – .68) and thereafter substantially increasing as the race progressed. Thus, sliding performance can potentially have a greater impact in luge and skeleton than in bobsleigh. The differentiating race characteristics show the need for different training methods.
Astorino, T., Baker, J., Brock, S., Dalleck, L., Goulet, E., Gotshall, R., & Laskin, J. (2012). The relationship between mental skills, experience, and stock car racing performance. J Exerc Physiol Online, 15(3).
Bullock, N., Martin, D. T., Ross, A., Rosemond, D., Holland, T., & Marino, F. E. (2008). Characteristics of the start in women's World Cup skeleton. Sports Biomech, 7(3), pp. 351-360. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763140802255796
Colyer, S. L., Stokes, K. A., Bilzon, J. L., Cardinale, M., & Salo, A. I. (2017). Physical predictors of elite skeleton start performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 12(1), pp. 81-89. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0631
Colyer, S. L., Stokes, K. A., Bilzon, J. L., Holdcroft, D., & Salo, A. I. (2018a). The effect of altering loading distance on skeleton start performance: Is higher pre-load velocity always beneficial? J Sports Sci, 36(17), pp. 1930-1936. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1426352
Colyer, S. L., Stokes, K. A., Bilzon, J. L., Holdcroft, D., & Salo, A. I. (2018b). Training-related changes in force–power profiles: implications for the skeleton start. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 13(4), pp. 412-419. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0110
Crossland, B. W., Hartman, J. E., Kilgore, J. L., Hartman, M. J., & Kaus, J. M. (2011). Upper-body anthropometric and strength measures and their relationship to start time in elite luge athletes. J Strength Cond Res, 25(10), pp. 2639-2644. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e318207ed7a
Fedotova, V., & Pilipiv, V. (2012). Hip and shoulder kinematics during initial sled acceleration in luging–A case study. Hum Mov Sci, 13(4), pp. 344-349. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10038-012-0040-3
Filho, E., Di Fronso, S., Mazzoni, C., Robazza, C., Bortoli, L., & Bertollo, M. (2015). My heart is racing! Psychophysiological dynamics of skilled racecar drivers. J Sports Sci, 33(9), pp. 945-959. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.977940
Hopkins, W., Marshall, S., Batterham, A., & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 41(1), p 3. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31818cb278
International Olympic Committee. (2018) Future Games sports programmes full of passion and excitement. Retrieved October 15, 2019 from https://www.olympic.org/news/future-games-sports-programmes-full-of-passion-and-excitement
Lembert, S., Schachner, O., & Raschner, C. (2011). Development of a measurement and feedback training tool for the arm strokes of high-performance luge athletes. J Sports Sci, 29(15), pp. 1593-1601. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.608433
Lopes, A. D., & Alouche, S. R. (2016). Two-man bobsled push start analysis. J Hum Kinet, 50(1), pp. 63-70. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2015-0143
Mccradden, M. D., & Cusimano, M. (2018). Concussions in sledding sports and the unrecognized ‘sled head’: a systematic review. Front Neurol, 9, p 772. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00772
Morlock, M. M., & Zatsiorsky, V. M. (1989). Factors influencing performance in bobsledding: I: Influences of the bobsled crew and the environment. J Appl Biomech, 5(2), pp. 208-221. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsb.5.2.208
Osbeck, J. S., Maiorca, S. N., & Rundell, K. W. (1996). Validity of field testing to bobsled start performance. J Strength Cond Res, 10(4), pp. 239-245.
Peeters, T., Van de Velde, M., Haring, E., Vleugels, J., Beyers, K., Garimella, R., & Verwulgen, S. (2018). A Test Setting to Enhance Bobsled Performance at Start Phase. Appl Hum Factors Ergon Conf, Orlando, FL. Louisville, KY: AHFE International. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-94000-7_30
Platzer, H.-P., Raschner, C., & Patterson, C. (2009). Performance-determining physiological factors in the luge start. J Sports Sci, 27(3), pp. 221-226. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410802400799
Potkanowicz, E. S., & Mendel, R. W. (2013). The case for driver science in motorsport: a review and recommendations. Sports Med, 43(7), pp. 565-574. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0040-2
Tomasevicz, C. L., Ransone, J. W., & Bach, C. W. (2018). Predicting Bobsled Pushing Ability from Various Combine Testing Events. J Strength Cond Res. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002489
Zanoletti, C., La Torre, A., Merati, G., Rampinini, E., & Impellizzeri, F. M. (2006). Relationship between push phase and final race time in skeleton performance. J Strength Cond Res, 20(3), p 579. https://doi.org/10.1519/r-17865.1
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.