Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Sport and recreation musculoskeletal injuries in Irish primary school children

Siobhan O'Connor, Enda Whyte, Niamh Ní Chéilleachair

Abstract

Musculoskeletal injury in children can lead to negative physical, psychological and socio-economic effects. This study aimed to examine sport and recreation injury incidence in Irish primary school children. A cross-sectional survey of 842 male and female Irish primary school children (9.62 ± 1.7 years) was conducted. Parents completed a questionnaire examining estimated weekly participation in sport and recreation and any injuries sustained in the previous 12 months that resulted in restricted performance, restricted ability to fully take part in or time lost from sport, recreational activities or school. Overall, 28.3% sustained an injury in one year, of which 30% presented to their local hospital emergency department. Sports injuries (0.15 per 1000 hours) were significantly more common than recreational injuries (0.04 per 1000 hours). Contact injuries were predominant (78.4%), with falling (19.3%), running (16.9%) and tackling/being tackled (16.5%) most common. Finger/thumb and ankle injuries were most common. Knee injuries resulted in the greatest injury burden (4.77 days absent per 1000 hours of sport and recreation) and 3 in 10 injuries were referred for a scan. A multi-level approach to managing and reducing sport and recreation musculoskeletal injuries in primary school children that targets all relevant stakeholders including parents, teachers, coaches and the children themselves should be considered to promote safe play and sporting participation for children.


Keywords

Musculoskeletal injury; Elementary school; First aid; Physical activity; Child

References

Abernethy L and MacAuley D (2003) Impact of school sports injury. British Journal of Sports Medicine 37(4): 354–355. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.37.4.354

Abernethy L, MacAuley D, McNally O, et al. (2003) Immediate care of school sport injury. Injury Prevention 9(3): 270–273. https://doi.org/10.1136/ip.9.3.270

Adirim TA and Cheng TL (2003) Overview of injuries in the young athlete. Sports Medicine 33(1): 75–81. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333010-00006

Başer M, Çoban S, Taşci S, et al. (2007) Evaluating First-aid Knowledge and Attitudes of a Sample of Turkish Primary School Teachers. Journal of Emergency Nursing 33(5): 428–432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2006.11.003

Bloemers F, Collard D, Paw MCA, et al. (2012) Physical inactivity is a risk factor for physical activity-related injuries in children. British Journal of Sports Medicine 46(9): 669–674. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2011-090546

Caine D, Maffulli N and Caine C (2008) Epidemiology of Injury in Child and Adolescent Sports: Injury Rates, Risk Factors, and Prevention. Clinics in Sports Medicine 27(1). International Perspectives: 19–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csm.2007.10.008

Cassell EP, Finch CF and Stathakis VZ (2003) Epidemiology of medically treated sport and active recreation injuries in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia. British Journal of Sports Medicine 37(5): 405–409. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.37.5.405

Collard DCM, Verhagen EALM, Mechelen W van, et al. (2011) Economic burden of physical activity–related injuries in Dutch children aged 10–12. British Journal of Sports Medicine 45(13): 1058–1063. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2010.082545

Conn JM, Annest JL and Gilchrist J (2003) Sports and recreation related injury episodes in the US population, 1997–99. Injury Prevention 9(2): 117–123. https://doi.org/10.1136/ip.9.2.117

Finch C (2006) A new framework for research leading to sports injury prevention. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 9(1): 3–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2006.02.009

Finch C, Valuri G and Ozanne-Smith J (1998) Sport and active recreation injuries in Australia: evidence from emergency department presentations. British Journal of Sports Medicine 32(3): 220–225. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.32.3.220

Fridman L, Fraser-Thomas JL, McFaull SR, et al. (2013) Epidemiology of sports-related injuries in children and youth presenting to Canadian emergency departments from 2007–2010. Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 5(30): 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1186/2052-1847-5-30

Garcia C (1994) Gender Differences in Young Children’s Interactions When Learning Fundamental Motor Skills. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 65(3): 213–225. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1994.10607622

Harmon KJ, Proescholdbell SK, Register-Mihalik J, et al. (2018) Characteristics of sports and recreation-related emergency department visits among school-age children and youth in North Carolina, 2010–2014. Injury Epidemiology 5(23): 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40621-018-0152-0

Knowles SB, Marshall SW and Guskiewicz KM (2006) Issues in Estimating Risks and Rates in Sports Injury Research. Journal of Athletic Training 41(2): 207–215.

Layte R and McCrory C (2011) Growing Up in Ireland National Longitudinal Study of Children: Overweight and Obesity among 9 year-olds. Available at: http://www.esri.ie/pubs/BKMNEXT211.pdf

Mummery WK, Spence JC, Vincenten JA, et al. (1998) A descriptive epidemiology of sport and recreation injuries in a population-based sample: Results from the Alberta Sport and Recreation Injury Survey (ASRIS). Canadian Journal of Public Health 89(1): 53–56. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03405796

O’Connor S, McCaffrey N, Whyte E, et al. (2016) Epidemiology of injury in male Irish secondary school adolescents in one academic year. Physiotherapy Practice and Research 37(1): 11–18. https://doi.org/10.3233/ppr-150064

O’Toole P, Butt A, Orakzai S, et al. (2008) Epidemiology of sporting and recreational injuries in a paediatric orthopaedic outpatients department. Irish Medical Journal 101(6): 173–174.

Purvis JM and Burke RG (2001) Recreational Injuries in Children: Incidence and Prevention. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 9(6): 365–374. https://doi.org/10.5435/00124635-200111000-00002

Rexen CT, Ersbøll AK, Wedderkopp N, et al. (2016) Longitudinal influence of musculo-skeletal injuries and extra physical education on physical fitness in schoolchildren. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 26(12): 1470–1479. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12618

van Mechelen W and Verhagen E (2005) Essay: Injury prevention in young people—time to accept responsibility. The Lancet 366: S46. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(05)67846-4

van Mechelen W, Hlobil H and Kemper HC (1992) Incidence, severity, aetiology and prevention of sports injuries. A review of concepts. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) 14(2): 82–99. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199214020-00002

Wang Y and Lobstein T (2006) Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity 1(1): 11–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/17477160600586747

Warburton DER, Nicol CW and Bredin SSD (2006) Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. Canadian Medical Association Journal 174(6): 801–809. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.051351

Whelton H, Harrington J, Crowley E, et al. (2007) Prevalence of overweight and obesity on the island of Ireland: results from the North South Survey of Children’s Height, Weight and Body Mass Index, 2002. BMC Public Health 7: 187–195. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-7-187




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2021.162.13





Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.